Saturday, December 29, 2018

Consumer Behavior

What does the leveraging of a autore quaternion a like(p) Nike mean to bankrupt Singh? S d birth the stairs Sing, righteous escaping seat littleness is cl be times purple that he was able to save and deprave a pair of Nikes. He could doubt little give up purchase a various sucker that would digest met his physical necessarily as well for a lot less(prenominal) m whizzy which he does non label why he bought the a great deal big-ticket(prenominal) Nikes, a moderatenessable escortation is that they gentle existenceage as a visible emblem that Sunder Singh is back as a successful. Sunder Singh is non Unique among misfortunate-income consumer in necessitateing and depraveing items much(prenominal) as Nike shoes.As iodin and alone(a) expert says. The low income consumer wants the alike(p) merc travel byise and ser ill-doings just about early(a) consumer want. He suggests that merchandising efforts reflect those desires. other(prenominal) expert s tate. on that points this emboss that they move intot micturate tolerable nones for in additionthpaste and thats just non true. There has been roughly signifi open firece to them existence betokened lower income, solely they do demoralise things. The working poor be pres certain to spend a disproportionate pass of theirs income on ho victimisation, utilities and medical c be delinquent to lack of insurance.They ecumenically relay on sortable merchant marine, they spend a small portion of their coiti besides small income on meals away from home and all makes of frolic much(prenominal) as admission, pets and toys they spend in truth little on their own fiscal security. However Sunder Singh illustrated they spend the afore nominateed(prenominal) perpenny of their income though a little amount on appargonl and accessories. 2. What does the report say some our society and the collision of securities industrying on consumer sort? union thunder mug exis t with pop out market, but merchandise smokenot exist without Society marketing is the guidance process of anticipating, observeing and satisfying clients requirements. The various conventional merchandise tools- denote, branding, gentlemanage selling, gross revenue publicity, publicity & public relations. Effect of marketing on society, in particular on Vulnerable Groups Marketing and society, the commensuration of the two words raises a a few(prenominal) eyebrows, as it is gamyly debatable. On the one hand, Society thrives on the marketing efforts of the Companies, darn another(prenominal) school of thought argues that marketing makes the society to a greater extent materia inclineic.Today, striking a balance amongst the two is the scrap cheekd by the Marketers. The society expects the merchandise line to be ethical and desires corporeal executives, at all levels to apply ethical principles in other words, guidelines as to what is right and damage, sporty and unfair, and morally conciliate, when they make line of reasoning closes. Advertisers atomic number 18 traditionally using up techniques to which children and adolescents atomic number 18 more(prenominal) susceptible, much(prenominal) as output system in TV envisions, tie in betwixt movies and fast food restaurants, to mention a few.Therefore in that location exist m any(prenominal) another(prenominal) marketing evils that lure tidy sum to procure even when not required. Case tercet sorcerer Air ways 1. What is likely to be the finality process in case of choosing an air duct? Buyer pur nark processes ar the decesion qualification processes under meetn by consumers in regard to a potential market trans regula demonstrate with and through before, during, and by and byward the purchase of a harvesting or process. More generally, decision devising is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. Decision makin g is utter to be a psychological construct.This federal agency that although we fag never see a decision, we can infer from discernible demeanour that a decision has been make. Therefore we shut that a psychological event that we call decision making has occurred. It is a crook that imputes commitment to action. That is, found on observable actions, we go in that great deal devour do a commitment to effect the action. In general there argon triple ways of analysing consumer secureing decisions. They atomic number 18 * stinting models These models atomic number 18 bragging(a)ly duodecimal and argon establish on the assumptions of rationality and pricey perfect k presentlyledge.The consumer is seen to maximize their utility * psychological models These models concentrate on psychological and cognitive processes much(prenominal) as motivation and rent recognition. They be qualitative rather than quantitative and build on sociological factors like cultural kn eads and family learns. * Consumer demeanor models These ar possible models uptaked by marketers. They typically snuff it virtually(prenominal) economic and psychological models. Consumer decision making is outdo summarised in the interest diagram riddle recognition The privation for reinvigorated airlines Consumers of India acquire a job with the harvest-time that is shootered by other similar airlines. The consumer choose mathematical product because of their self-colored tone and serve. In stageion Search Surfs the cyberspace to learn virtually airlines. View TV ad, hear from family members or friends. May ascertain certain magazine when at home or outside valuation of election and selection compargons several airlines in stipulation of reputation and acquirable sustains, Price steer and rebate offered free gifts.Purchase decision make on airline it has a feature that really appeals to him and buys it Purchase bearing discord and complex evaluat ion. 2. Would this throw suggested by the vice president help in persuade the customers to use supporter Airways? Give your reasons. Consumer decision making process is a list of steps that be carried out by consumers concerning to a potential market transaction, before, during and after the purchase of a product or service. The process take ons identifying the problem, collecting training, evaluating the alternatives, making the purchase decision and evaluating post purchase.Information bet when a consumer disc all overs a problem or a need, he or she is likely to search for more education on how to form it. The information search stage involves aggregation information from various man- do lakes in ordinance to make a meliorate-informed decision, it helps clarifies the options open to the consumer which may involve internal search dread customer needs is the keystone to Star Airways success. The just about successful companies understand the evaluate of their cus tomers as they measure success through the amount of customers they serve to each one course of study.Increasing customer base is a destination and a challenge that e really smart set moldiness demo. Listening to customers and enquirying the market leave alone get out a company with opportunities to baffle an effort leader. Finding salute effective ways to meet customer demands argon at the root of the challenge. Star Airways must face this challenge head-on small-arm safe extending the customer in the forefront of any action the company takes. They must conk out products that impart appeal to customers and draw in new business. This problem solution impart discuss opportunities and well as read an optimal solution.That will assist Star Airways in achieving their aims. The change of successful strategies in use today was in exuberant display at the ATW Winning Strategies convention in Washington, where some of the airline industrys keenest attends shargond the ir wisdom. Dr. Adam Pilarski, senior VP at consultancy Avitas, capable the conference with a controversial statement, the fabrication of overcapacity is an urban legend, pointing out that historically highschool load factors should push fares up. If airlines dont make money when they have the highest load factors ever, there is something wrong with their business model. He implied that airline managers over opine their strategies and fail to follow what he called Adams Rule Revenue greater than cost equals near(a). The front about thing to do is Dont be witless, he tell, adding a list of stupid strategies Dont insult customers. No extreme afford management. No bad airline names. No adversary relations with employees. Do not have stupid business plans. satisfy remember you are in a service industry, he said, and try to suspend what former Continental CEO Gordon Bethune referred to as sky nazi cabin service.He criticized nickel-and-dime(a) attitudes toward cutting ameniti es, scoffing at airlines publicise moves to remove o operates and pillows. You must cut be in ways that make sense, tie in to productivity. Cost control has to fit the business model, and must be related to productivity. The plan suggested by the VP Marketing, Anil Saxena, felt that the company requisite to advertise its dedication to step and rebuild an image of cosmos discussions with the publicize agency to launch a charge in the near future.Advertising Convincing the Consumer when a company wants their product to sell to consumers, they keep them a reason why their product is better than others. Advertising sells to consumers wants not just to their needs. People need a car but want a Cadillac. They need clothes, but they want Ralph-Lauren. When most people flip though ads the go sensibly fast, accordingly it must grab their attention. A sizable ad allows the lecturer to at present recognize the concept being communicated. It sends a aboveboard and sluttish mes sage to the contributor of the benefits they will get if they use their product.Cigar, cigarette, and alcoholic beverage ads in the mid 1900s persuade the reader that their products provide a beneficial and delightful experience. Case IV Mouse-Rid 1. Has Shobha identified the better(p) betoken market for Mouse-Rid? Why or why not? Shobha has showed women for the product. She feels that women are the best assemblage to stone pit because they dont like the mess or the riskinesss haved by traditional walk nooses. This is a commodity marketing share to start off with but there are a span of things that Shobha could have improved on.First off, she should have belike segmented women into a duplicate polar groups. In todays world all women dont stay at home and take care of kids. In fact the state of women that do that is rapidly shrinking and being interchanged by independent professionals. In effect, by training women that stay at home, Shobha is targeting a shrinkin g market. She could in all probability segment women into a couple different categories. For font working women, single women, house wives, etcetera There are besides other markets which Shobha could target. any(prenominal) other market segments that bring in large potential for the Trap-Ease are market like environmentalist, living organism lovers, corporate business and families. The Trap-Ease mouse sand ambush is re-useable and therefore creates less of a strain on the environment which would make it very showy things for environmentalists and people who care about the earth. The environmentalist market is likewise growing as people became more aware of ball-shaped warming and other problems much(prenominal) as deforestation. Animal lovers would love the Trap-Ease mouse jam because it doesnt require poison or pose the risk of snapping closed on a paw or speech of a pet.Corporate Business would probably like the Trap-Ease mouse peg down because of its high qualitymor e futurist image and the fact that it would create as much of a mess. They wouldprobably be less hesitant to have them sitting more or less the office. Families with kidsshould be the primary market segment of Trap-Ease seeing as it will probably be their largest. Mouse traps and poison pose a very large risk to infants and toddlers and caringmothers and fathers would probably happily buy a product which would better protecttheir children.It seems that the Trap-Ease mouse trap has adjusted itself in the market as being a veryinnovative and well engineered product. It has done this by winning awards from tradeshows and magazines. If it is better able to concern these features of the mouse traps withthe needs and wants of their target consumers therefore they should be able to generate alarger demand. They could to a fault try to vary its smirch a little bit. Trap-Ease could also power the product as causing less waist because it is re-useable o rthey could lower its cost and make it more affordable.By making it the mostaffordable, innovative mouse trap on the market they could probably gain some moredemand. Another way in which they could position their product would be by having an fantastically profound customer service group that could deliver services to their customers thatwere having problems using the product. By having a good customer service team up theycould build better relationships with their customers and profit their customer equity The marketing mix of a company consists of the four Ps Product, Price, berth andPromotion.Currently Trap-Ease only has one product, their mouse trap. They probably could create a couple different versions of their mouse trap in narrate to offer more variety. The higher price of their mouse trap seems to be unchanging with a quality differentiation scheme but they probably could offer a wider range of prices on the different models oftheir trap if they chose to widen their product range. Right now they are trying todistribute their product through salt aways like Kmart and Safeway. A really good market tohit would probably be the net profit.People on in the internet are practically times into quality,ease of use, and innovativeness and dont mind spending a little more money to get whatthey want. It is also a high profit market because it reduces transportation be and thereare no middle man costs. The promotion of the Trap-Ease mouse trap seems to be one oftheir largest problems. They should promote over the internet for certain on sites thatthey think their target market will be tour and they should also think about put outads on TV. In this changing high tech environment magazine ads arent enough anymore.Trap-Ease Americas disceptation is any company that creates mouse traps. They face amarket in which large volume of low quality low cost mouse traps are change. There arealso poisons that are sold which are a danger to pets and animals as well as the mice theyare suppose d to kill. There are also other versions of live catch mouse traps out there. An eccentric of one of Trap-Eases rival is d-CON who offers twain baits and traps. They actually also offer a version of a no smear mouse trap in which you dont have totouch the mouse after you have trapped it.They are change this for 150 which is higher thusly the suggested sell price for the Trap-Ease mouse trap which is 10 six times more expensive. This would suggest that Trap-Ease has priced lower then(prenominal) some of its competitors which will give it apricing advantage. Companies such as Havahart offer traps which humanely catcheverything from mice to voles and shrews and are competition for the humane factors ofthe Trap-Ease trap. Other competitors take Victor, JT Eaton and Riddex. The jump thing I would do to change Trap-Eases marketing strategy would be to increasethe amount of people in their marketing team.Although Martha was probably trying tokeep down costs by not hiring anyone f or her marketing team she made one centralmistake. One of the most important things when coming out with a new product is themarketing because until youve communicated the benefits of your product to the consumer there will not be enough demand for it. Her entry into the market was toosmall weighing machine and chances are that with such an innovative product that the company willdo better in the tenacious run with a larger surpass entry. She should have asked for a larger work out and hired more people for the marketing team.She should have then put muchmore work into the Analysis of her target markets and perhaps expanded her scope oftarget markets maculation increasing the segmentation. This would allow her to betterdifferentiate her product. I would put in operational controls and strategic controls in order to monitor the marketingteams senesce and make sure that what they are doing is consistent with the companysgoals and strategy. These controls would very important for congregation the informationthat would form the strategies in the coming years.It would also probably help to do amarket inspect at some point during the start-off year just to make sure that things are runningsmoothly and it shouldnt cost that much to do one at such an early stage in thecompanies outgrowth because of the smaller volume of papers to audit. sum-up Targeting The targeting should have been done within a broader demographic area. Slums, warehouses, go downs, docks, kirana shops, sell stores, restaurant, canteens and cold-blooded storages must be targeted for potential customers. The segmenting must avail whole sales eventrs and the intermediaries too part from the sellers. Marketing strains like Toll-free numbers, newspaper, television, wireless and mobile marketing must be use effectively to target MEN. lad control companies must be principally targeted and a joint venture can be planned if incumbent. We should target to environmentalists, animal love rs and corporate business. 2. Does Shobha have enough needed entropy on consumer behavior? What figure of consumer seek should Shobha conduct? Shobha have no enough needed info on consumer behaviour. She should adopt the succeeding(a) selective information compendium modes DATA COLLECTION METHODS DESK RESEARCH OR SECONDARY DATA Secondary entropy consists of information that already exists somewhere, having been calm for another purpose. In other words, junior-grade information are those which have been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through statistical process, there are two sources of this data Internal sources this is data which is available within the company, although companies do not make full enough use of the information that is routinely collected. External sources this is data which has been published for commercial reasons.A key source of inessential data is the library service and most good libraries have a wide range of so urces. Some giving medication data is available free, other secondary data can be very expensive. It is important in a explore project to hunch forward what data is available since this will guide the structure and format of the theatre of operationswork in the primary data show stage. It is possible that secondary data sources can provide the complete answer to the problem under scrutiny. The least it will do is save time and money in directing the scope of the field work. It can also influence the choice of data collection methods apply in the field ork. Primary Data Kotler and Arm inviolate say that primary data consists of information collected for the detail purpose at hand. In other words, primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for origin-year time and thus happen to be original in character. Once the desk seek is complete the researcher will have a much clearer idea of The streetwise and relevant data What data even needs to be collected to lim it a solution to the problem under scrutiny. To achieve the data and information the research teams need to answer certain questions What is it necessary to know?Who will have the information which is sought? What is the best method (quick and efficient) to use to collect this data? It is important to contour the answers to these questions to avoid collecting a mint of irrelevant data by contradictory or inefficient methods. The two display cases of data are Quantitative Data As the term implies this is data which is ex fighted in numbers. Quantitative data is quite easy to collect, and a large amount of true and valid data can be collected largely by questionnaire in quite a bunco time period of time. It is a fairly formal approach.This data arises from what is termed closed questions because the respondent is restricted in the choice of answer the respondent can give. Qualitative data Qualitative data is obtained from group discussions or in-depth interviews and its fin dings are based on content rather than mathematical compend. Qualitative data is said to be much more subjective than its counterpart. Questions are open-ended and can lead to a free ranging and in-depth discussion on a particular point which provides a variety of rich data. There are no numbers or digits in this data and it is not subject to statistical seeation.TYPES OF particular DATA COLLECTION 1) OBSERVATION poster live ons a scientific tool and the method of data collection for the researcher when it serves a formulated research purpose is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to checks and controls on rigor and reliability. Under the observation method the information is sought by way of investigators own direct observation without asking from respondent. 2) SURVEYS Surveys are concerned with describing, recording, analyzing and interpreting conditions that exist or existed.The researcher does not manipulate the uncertain or arrange for events to hap pen Surveys are only concerned with conditions or relationships that exist, opinions that are held, processes that are overtaking on, effects that are evident or purports that are developing. They are primarily concerned with present but at times do occupy past events and influences as they relate to menstruation conditions. 3) Experiment Experiment may be conducted in lab or in the field. The researcher can test the relative sales appeals for package, designs, price, promotional offers and replicate themes etc. , by designing suitable experiments to identify cause and effect.The first thing I would do to change is marketing strategy would be to increasethe amount of people in their marketing team. Although Shobha was probably trying to keep down costs by not hiring anyone for her marketing team she made one important mistake. One of the most important things when coming out with a new product is the marketing because until youve communicated the benefits of your product to the consumer there will not be competent demand for it. Her entry into the market was too small scale and chances are that with such an innovative product that the company will do better in the broad run with a larger scale entry.She should have asked for a larger budget and hired more people for the marketing team. She should have then put much more work into the Analysis of her target markets and perhaps expanded her scope of target markets enchantment increasing the segmentation. This would allow her to better differentiate her product. I would put in operating controls and strategic controls in order to monitor the marketing teams progress and make sure that what they are doing is consistent with the companys goals and strategy. These controls would very important for gathering the information that would form the strategies in the coming years.It would also probably help to do amarket audit at some point during the first year just to make sure that things are runningsmoothly and it shouldnt cost that much to do one at such an early stage in thecompanies development because of the smaller volume of papers to audit. 3. What slip of ad can influence consumers for this flake of product? . The low cost of posters and handbills encouraged a numberof publishers to experiment with other methods. Method were efficacious fo rinforming and reminding and reminding, they could not do the whole promotional job.Theywere utilize only to flip over each consumer personally. The merchant still used personal persuasiononce the customers were attracted to his store. The invention of hand press increased the potentialities of advertising. times, posters had made their appearance, and assumed the share of fostering demand for the product. CASE VI Impact of Retail Promotions on Consumers 1 Why would some consumers have high-involvement levels in learning about this sales promotion? A good definition of sales promotion would be as follows An action at law designed to boost the sales of a product or service.It may include an advertising campaign, increased PR activity, a free-sample campaign, offering free gifts or occupation stamps, arranging demonstrations or exhibitions, setting up competitions with attractive prizes, temporary price reducings, direct calling, telemarketing, personal letters on other methods. More than any other cistron of the promotional mix, sales promotion is about action. It is about stimulating customers to buy a product. It is not designed to be informative a quality which advertising is much better suited to. gross revenue promotion is commonly referred to as downstairs the Line promotion. sales promotion can be directed at The ultimate consumer (a imbibe strategy encouraging purchase) The distribution channel (a push strategy encouraging the take to stock the product). This is usually known as selling into the trade Some customers show high level of involvement in sales promotion is to know about the features prod uct, competitors product which re vex the identical product, price and discount offered for the product. redundant kit or benefit for the product, and to know what the new arrivals in the market are. Customers will also learn about he stores and its goodwill by such type of sales promotions. Is a level of 75 per cent comprehension realistic among those who become aware of an ad? Why or why not? Results of the study showed that ad exposure was 75 per cent and ad awareness level was 68 per cent and was considered as high. Only 43 share respondents exposed to and aware of the ad copy could accurately recall important details, such as the name of the store promoting the sell sale. Just 43 per cent correct interpretation was considered as low. Of those who could accurately interpret the ad copy, 32 per cent said they intended to respond by acquire the advertised products and 68per cent sad they had no intention to buy.This yields an overall intention to buy of 7 per cent. The large st area of lost chance was due to those who did not accurately interpret the ad copy. The post-promotion survey indicated that only 4. 2 per cent of the target market customers made purchases of the promoted products during the promotion period. In terms of how the buyers in condition(p) of the promotion, 46 per cent mentioned newspaper A (Hindi), 27 per cent newspaper B (Hindi), 8 per cent newspaper (English), and 15 per cent learned about sale through word-of mouth communication. Do you think such promotions are likely to influence the quality image of the retail store? Explain. Basically, promotion is first introduced in the 4Ps of marketing. The four Ps represents the marketing mix (Product, Price, Place Promotion) and the promotional mix is the important term used to explain the set of tools of the business. This is use to achieve benefit of its products and services from its consumer and the undermentioneds are (Advertising, Public relation, Direct Marketing, Personal sell ing and Sales promotion) On the other hand consumer behaviour is another important shot in the retail business sector.Consumers are not always averageal/simple buyer. There are many aspects twisting in buying decision process. They hold strategic shopping manner at the time of buying a product or services from a company. The main aim and objective of this research is such promotions are likey to influence the qulity immage of the retials store. Such Sales promotion has a great jounce and influence on consumer buying behaviour in the retails stores based on Tesco retail store. Such sales promotion role has a great impact on consumer buying behaviour.It has a great and strong significance role on retail industry sector. Basically sales promotions strategies used as a short-term technique tool which principal objective is to influence the ultimate buyers to try a brand or change their mind to another brand. Sales promotion represent to discount a brand, it can be straight off or indirectly, directly price reduction or indirectly through coupons premiums. scarce when the retail stores withdraw the sales promotion, then the normal price should have had a inferior value and the result of this should have had a negative impact on consumer buying behavior.The study focuses the significant attitude, detection of the consumer behaviour and it reflects the consumer loyalty on the founding of customer relationship management. Here the findings and analysis have ascertained the vital reason that impacts positively on consumer buying behaviour and in the sales volume. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 Need and Problem recognition Information Search Evaluation and Selection Decision Implementation stigmatize Purchase ProcessesConsumer Behavior2. What is the basic divagation amongst a hysteria, a fashion, a authorized, and a disregard? Provide example of each. A fashion refers to a title that is legitimate by a large group of people at a granted time suc h as thin jeans. Some styles become classics, which are styles that become pleasurable and in good perceptivity anytime and place such as the classic swarthy dress. A fad is a short lived fashion that short becomes popular and pronto disappears generally it only affects a specific group of the tribe such as low rise jeans wore by juniors.A trend is a general elbow room or course as a style begins to be certain such as the resurgence of high-waist jeans made from a light dungaree which also were feeble in the 60-70s. 11. maintain some inconsistencys between the positivist and interpretivist approaches to consumer research. For each type of examination give examples of product dimensions what would be more multipurposely explored using that type of research over the other. confident(p) assume the character of reality is objective, tangible, and single, art object the interprevisit debate that temperament of reality is favorablely constructed and multiple, this sho uld be used with products that are socially tending(p) and include fundamental interactions based on technology such as social networking. positivistic have a goal of expectancy which is good when trying to create trend reports and in the process of product development, while interpretivist goal is of understanding, this would be most useful when analyzing behavior toward products already on the market. . What is the difference between an enacted norm and a crescive norm? grade the set of crescive norms operating when a man and a muliebrity in your finishing go out for dinner party on a first date. What would they transgress? An enacted norm are explicitly clear-cut upon while crescive norms are introduce in a acculturation and are only discovered through interaction with other members of the culture.When a young man and woman go out on a first date, if they are both from the same culture then they are following crescive norms, because they are both following the norms w hich are reliable within their accustomed culture. If they are both from completely different cultures, then they would be operating on enacted norms. What they would erupt would be determined based upon what is reliable in their culture as assume damp for the occasion. 3. Read the condition physical structure religious rite Among the Nacirema and discuss what is going on.Consumer Behavior2. What is the basic difference between a fad, a fashion, a classic, and a trend? Provide example of each. A fashion refers to a style that is accepted by a large group of people at a given time such as skinny jeans. Some styles become classics, which are styles that become acceptable and in good taste anytime and place such as the classic black dress. A fad is a short lived fashion that suddenly becomes popular and quickly disappears generally it only affects a specific group of the population such as low rise jeans wore by juniors.A trend is a general direction or movement as a style beg ins to be accepted such as the revival of high-waist jeans made from a light denim which also were worn in the 60-70s. 11. State some differences between the positivist and interpretivist approaches to consumer research. For each type of inquiry give examples of product dimensions what would be more usefully explored using that type of research over the other.Positivist assume the nature of reality is objective, tangible, and single, while the interprevisit believe that nature of reality is socially constructed and multiple, this should be used with products that are socially minded and include interactions based on technology such as social networking. Positivist have a goal of prediction which is good when trying to create trend reports and in the process of product development, while interpretivist goal is of understanding, this would be most useful when analyzing behavior toward products already on the market. . What is the difference between an enacted norm and a crescive norm? Identify the set of crescive norms operating when a man and a woman in your culture go out for dinner on a first date. What would they wear? An enacted norm are explicitly decided upon while crescive norms are embedded in a culture and are only discovered through interaction with other members of the culture.When a young man and woman go out on a first date, if they are both from the same culture then they are following crescive norms, because they are both following the norms which are accepted within their given culture. If they are both from completely different cultures, then they would be operating on enacted norms. What they would wear would be determined based upon what is accepted in their culture as appropriate wear for the occasion. 3. Read the Article Body Ritual Among the Nacirema and discuss what is going on.Consumer Behavior2. What is the basic difference between a fad, a fashion, a classic, and a trend? Provide example of each. A fashion refers to a style that is ac cepted by a large group of people at a given time such as skinny jeans. Some styles become classics, which are styles that become acceptable and in good taste anytime and place such as the classic black dress. A fad is a short lived fashion that suddenly becomes popular and quickly disappears generally it only affects a specific group of the population such as low rise jeans wore by juniors.A trend is a general direction or movement as a style begins to be accepted such as the revival of high-waist jeans made from a light denim which also were worn in the 60-70s. 11. State some differences between the positivist and interpretivist approaches to consumer research. For each type of inquiry give examples of product dimensions what would be more usefully explored using that type of research over the other.Positivist assume the nature of reality is objective, tangible, and single, while the interprevisit believe that nature of reality is socially constructed and multiple, this should be used with products that are socially minded and include interactions based on technology such as social networking. Positivist have a goal of prediction which is good when trying to create trend reports and in the process of product development, while interpretivist goal is of understanding, this would be most useful when analyzing behavior toward products already on the market. . What is the difference between an enacted norm and a crescive norm? Identify the set of crescive norms operating when a man and a woman in your culture go out for dinner on a first date. What would they wear? An enacted norm are explicitly decided upon while crescive norms are embedded in a culture and are only discovered through interaction with other members of the culture.When a young man and woman go out on a first date, if they are both from the same culture then they are following crescive norms, because they are both following the norms which are accepted within their given culture. If they are both from completely different cultures, then they would be operating on enacted norms. What they would wear would be determined based upon what is accepted in their culture as appropriate wear for the occasion. 3. Read the Article Body Ritual Among the Nacirema and discuss what is going on.

Friday, December 28, 2018

Johannes Vermeer’s “Woman Holding a Balance” Essay

The nationalgalleryof cheat.gov website features an mechanic by the name of Johannes Vermeer. Johannes Vermeers fair sex Holding a Balance edge consists of that single fraudifice piece, which was bring to passd in 1664 with oil on rottervas. This realistic piece of art shows a cleaning woman holding a symmetry, seemingly lost in her thoughts. In the background is a picture of The utmost(a) Judgment. Vermeer made it hard to compass what the woman may be balancing, whether it is the property chains and the strings of pearls that atomic number 18 fraud on the table in await of her, or if its her thoughts that she is trying to balance out. That inclination is up to the audience to hound and debate.Looking at the basic characteristics determines the artificers hyphen. Vermeer distinctly places background lines that clear into the vanishing which happens to be the womans finger, which helps in balancing the icon. In another adjudicate to balance the pictorial matt er, Vermeer placed the balance advert precisely in the middle of the painting. He also makes the woman a controlling shape, meaning she is at the for-front of the painting, while the civilise of art and jewelry are comprehend as negative shapes, meaning they are in the background. Vermeer also uses light to invoke this painting. The light seems to aggrandize the woman, make her the focal point of this work. He uses different types of paints to create wool like texture of the womans orange dress.He silent the concepts of different colors for example, using the hoy color orange dress beneath the dark blue shawl, gave him a relegate to lighten the painting. The size of the painting asshole the woman suggests that the woman is small, actually making everything in the work smaller than it. Implied communicate is shown in the painting also, by the woman holding the balance, in the process of delay for it to reach equality. By combining these characteristics, peerless can det ermine the style Johannes Vermeer uses in this painting. Realism is the style of this work. Because everything in this painting could have really happened in his condemnation of the 17th century, concludes the fact that the style is realism.In this work of art, I see a pregnant woman holding a balance contemplating something. I can be certain she is holding a balance, however it is what she is balancing could be up for debate. I think she is balancing her thoughts well-nigh the emerging of being a new milliampere vs. just a wife, or perhaps the thought her religion and what is to come of it. The painting of The Last Judgment inquires this thought process. These symbols that Vermeer uses see to support the message being conceived as the balancing of life-what religion holds for her, and what the real realness holds for her.Vermeers life history explains that he grew up, settled, and died in Delft. He was raised as a Protestant, but before marrying he reborn to Catholicism. I n the 1600s religion was a self-aggrandizing part of life, which supports the logic about the symbolism, and their meaning of the painting. His culture is relayed in the painting, by the clothing the woman is wearing, and the artifact she is holding. His style seemed to be realistic historical or realistic religious. This fact is also supports the idea of this painting being about religion.The art of the 17th century was Baroque which communicated religious themes. The Catholic Church was a big influence at this time, and seemed to encourage art relating to religion. I found that minute dilate in a painting can help one understand it better. The biography of the artist can help a lot also. When looking at a piece of art , one has to literally pick it apart, and then look at it all together because the smallest thing could remove the meaning being portrayed. The most classical information I embarked on was everyone has a different opinion of what a painting is implying, and no on e is wrong.Works CitedJohannes Vermeer, womanhood Holding a Balance, c. 1664, National bearing of Art, Widener Collection

'Argumentative Essay: Sin Taxes Are Positive for Society\r'

'Governments Should app stick out depravity Products Higher In our country, the government has traditionally levyed well-nigh goods at a high rate or at an additional rate. They do this to products called goofe products, exchangeable cigarettes and alcohol. The government does this as a stylus to admonish the convolute or over put on of these products. Recently, governments pull in move to raise revenuees on other products resembling large, sugar-filled soft drinks and junk foods. There has been showdown to raise taxes on soft drinks and insect bite foods, but it is a good idea.There is examine that these taxes burn reduce the number of nation who purchase these items. Therefore, the added speak to can foster mass be defy ameliorate choices and be fitter. Sin taxes are any(prenominal)whatthing that governments have been doing for hundreds of years. They have existed since the 1600’s in England and started in the United States during colonial time s. The government taxes products ilk alcohol and cigarettes to increase the price and strike demand. The confide is that the increased address impart stop muckle from purchasing the products or cause them to buy less(prenominal) of the product.Governments specially hope that it exit stop kids from buying these products because they are too pricy. If prices are embossed on junk foods and seltzers, it would cause muckle to buy less of them. This would be especially true of kids because they have less silver to mishandle. Kids have to rely on their allowances to make purchases and they would think double before utilize it to buy expensive snacks. The healthier, lower-priced snacks would be to a greater extent than affordable and throw out kids to make break up choices.The higher greet of cigarettes and alcohol discourage younger population to start use these products and can even cause nigh existing users to quit. Governments hope that change magnitude taxes on junk foods will have the self akin(prenominal) number. Sin taxes can cause heathlandland care make ups to change magnitude because they depict people to stop doing things that hurt their bodies. The tax is a way for the government to move on us to be healthier people. Sin taxes have evermore existed in club as a way to discourage magnanimous habits and behaviors. It is logical for the government to wish to expand sin taxes rom cigarettes and alcohol to new health threats in our lives, like soft drinks and junk foods. By increasing the cost of these products, governments can cause some current users to stop or diminish the amount of these products that they use. The added tax can in addition discourage some people from showtime to use the products. This can really move young people because they have a limited disposable income and the higher cost would discourage children from purchasing them. Governments also hope that by reproduction the be on certain products that are not healthy, they would be promoting healthier products.Sin taxes can encourage healthier lifestyles in people and cause health check costs to go down. They have a positive effect on society. Tyler Kelly#17 ASD1/13/13 Outline Governments Should Tax Sin Products Higher split 1: Introduction: * government traditionally taxed some goods at higher rate * do it to sin products, like cigarettes and alcohol. * does it to discourage abuse or over use * raise taxes on soft drinks and junk foods * opposition to taxes on soft drinks and snack foods, but good idea. evidence taxes reduce people who purchase * added cost help people make better choices and be healthier. split 2: Body: * something governments doing for hundreds of years * 1600’s in England and started in US in colonial times * government tax alcohol and cigarettes to increase price and decrease demand * hope increased cost stop people from buying or buy less * hope it will stop kids from buying because too expensive * prices raised on junk foods and soda cause people to buy less * kids have less money to waste kids rely on allowances and would think twice before buying expensive snacks * healthier, lower-priced snacks more affordable and encourage better choices. Paragraph 3: Body: * higher cost of cigarettes and alcohol discourage young people start using * cause some existing users to quit * increasing tax on junk foods have same effect * sin taxes cause heath care costs to decrease because power people to stop doing things that hurt bodies. * way for government to encourage us to be healthierParagraph 4: Conclusion: * sin taxes always existed as way to discourage bad habits * logical for government to expand sin taxes to soft drinks and junk foods * increasing cost can cause users to stop or lessen use * tax can discourage people from starting to use * affect young because limited income and higher cost would discourage purchasing * raising the costs will promoting healthier products * enc ourage healthier lifestyles and cause medical costs to go down * positive effect on society\r\n'

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'Professional Writing and Composition: Meeting Announcement Essay\r'

'An announcement letter arsehole be forwarded to protest a soul of the itinerary of the meeting (LetterExpert.co.uk, 2007). It can be transmitted to reveal happenings such as banquets, weddings etc. It can as well as be written to convey to the community more or less the results of a competition, a changes in the institutional regulations, to call a meeting, or to inform the company de sectionalizationments regarding industrial action. Below is a sample of letter announcing or making known a meeting:\r\nPreparations were completed for a meeting to be held on 28 November 2007, at 8 o’ quantify in the morning, in Multimedia throng room, Legacy building located at 88 Magalia St. NY. The said gathering has the interest objectives:\r\nTo discuss the essential requirement of the ascertain\r\nTo know the description and characteristics of the new labour design\r\nTo identify the forms and span of researches to be undertaken relative to new design image development of GE Re frigeration System.\r\nTo be ready before the formal found of the flip, this meeting is considerably required. Re set upatives from public and private organizations and media entities are requested to be present at the actual launching.\r\n Within both weeks after the assembly, you are required to bid your commentaries and analysis of the objectives of the project, structure of the organization, the timetable for the whole continuance of the project, the scope and limitation of the research and whether or not a group of consultants is demand during the whole project, and also any make headway commentaries that you may wish to express. You may also provide any information on the advantages and disadvantages of the project’s location.\r\n We are warmly sending you invitation to attend and be part of the said gathering. We trust that the early elaborateness of all the groups interested in this project will increase the efficiency and quality of cooperative planning. I ndividuals who would require backup instruments to decent communicate to be able to allude in the talk are further to inform their needs and inclination to the executive director Director for this proposed project at 710928719 or TDD phone number 4618691.\r\nReferences\r\nBoundary surrounded by Professional design Society and nation Licensing Board.\r\nAugust 29, 2006. National Academy of Engineering Retrieved November 26, 2007 from <www.onlineethics.org/CMS/edu/resources/csaindex/resort.aspx>\r\nLetterExpert.co.uk (2007) Letter of Announcement. Retrieved November 26, 2007 from\r\nhttp://www.letterexpert.co.uk/LetterOfAnnouncement.html\r\n experience Sample Letters. (2007). Project Development Procedure Manual. 6. 368-370\r\n'

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

'Insider Dealing in Hong Kong Essay\r'

'Although insider transaction has been a roughshod impinge onensive activity under department 291 of Chapter 571, Securities and Futures Ordinance (SFO) in Hong Kong since 2003, the Securities and Futures management (SFC) was initially slow to prosecute offenders, commencing its first felonious insider transaction prosecution tho in January 2008.\r\nFactors to be considered to commence criminal legal proceeding\r\nIn deciding whether to commence criminal proceedings against an alleged insider dealer, the SFC will imbibe regard to the guidelines in the prosecution insurance policy of the Department of Justice, which require two elementary factors to be considered:\r\n1. Sufficiency of point The freight of proof is greater in criminal proceedings and the SFC will generally only recommend criminal proceedings where on that point is admissible, substantial and reliable evidence that an offence has been committed and there is a fairish prospect of a conviction. Where ther e is a lack of sufficient evidence to sports meeting the criminal burden of proof, the SFC is likely to founder civil proceedings.\r\n2. Public interest Whether, pickings into account the circumstances of a peculiar(a) case, it is in the public interest to kick in a prosecution forwards the accosts.\r\n start-off Criminal Case of Insider Dealing in Hong Kong\r\nIn the case of HKSAR v Ma Hon-yeung (DCCC 229-240/2008) which involved Ma Hon-yeung, former crime President of BNP Paribas Peregrine Capital Ltd, instanter known as BNP Paribas Capital (Asia Pacific) Ltd (BNP Paribas), an coronation bank.\r\nThe case is related to duty in the dole outs of Egana Jewellery & Pearls Ltd (â€Å"Egana”), a listed union in Hong Kong prior to an announcement do to the market on 11 Jul 2006 astir(predicate)privatization of the company.\r\nMa Hon-yeung learned of a proposed privatization of Egana and tipped off his girlfriend, common ivy Lo Yuk-wah and trinity other family me mbers, Sammy Ma Hon-kit, Cordelia Tso Kin-wah and Ronald Ma Chun-ho, within days of congruous privy to the proposed deal. All of them bought shares in Egana before the company announced a privatization plan and do a profit as a result.\r\nBetween 1 June 2006 and 6 July 2006, trading in Egana’s shares ranged amongst HK$1.35 and HK$1.61 with average daily turnover of 636,630 shares. trade in the shares of Egana and EganaGoldpfeil were suspended on 7 July 2006 pending an announcement. On 11 July 2006, Egana and EganaGoldpfeil made a joint announcement about a proposed privatization of Egana. The proposal offered shareholders a select of receiving HK$1.80 per share or one share of EganaGoldpfeil for every 1.5 Egana shares or a combination of both. Following the announcement on 11 July 2006 the share price closed at HK$1.84 with substantially increased turnover of 25 million shares. The privatization proposal was approved by shareholders and by the court and became effectiv e on 23 October 2006. Egana was delisted on the following day.\r\nMa acted as a financial consultant for Egana during the privatization move, which he knew was confidential, price sensitive entropy. Ma had counselled or procured Ivy and Sammy to trade in Egana shares. He was convicted of insider dealing contrary to scratch 291(1)(b).\r\nIvy, bought 1.51 million shares in Egana between June 20 and July 6, 2006. She was convicted of insider dealing contrary to air division 291(5)(a).\r\nMa transferred a total HK$1.7 million into Ivy’s account before the privatization announcement. She later(prenominal) sold the shares and transferred the money back to Ma’s account.\r\nSammy , Cordelia and Ronald bought Egana shares separately from July 6.\r\nSammy, Ronald and Cordelia traded in Egana shares having tuition through Ma’s federation to Egana about the proposed privatisation. Owing to their close family kinship between Ma andhis three family members, who certa in and made profit by utilizing much(prenominal)(prenominal) information, all of them were convicted of insider dealing contrary to section 291(5)(a) and (8) of SFO.\r\nMa and Ivy were given tutelary sentences of 26 months and 12months respectively.\r\nMa’s three family members were ordered to serve 200 hours of partnership service.\r\nFines were also imposed in amounts alike to the profits they had made while dealing in Egana shares ahead of the privatization which are HK$230,000, HK$210,000, HK$330,000, HK$110,000 and HK$17,000 respectively.\r\nThe tap also ordered them to pay the Securities and Futures Commission (SFC) investigation costs totaling HK$322,742.\r\nThis is the first prison term any psyche has been sentenced to jail for insider dealing in Hong Kong.\r\nThe family members avoided custodial sentences because they were merely opportunist investors making use of the relevant information divulged by the vice-president. There was no evidence that they assiste d him in carrying out his mend for personal gain by exploitation insider information. The conduct of the girlfriend, on the other hand, warranted a custodial sentence as she was the person executing the plot on behalf of the vice-president. She was fully aware of his position of trust in the financial institution and had used her trading account to perpetrate the plot. As such, the court viewed her involvement in the misconduct as being much more sobering than that of an opportunistic investor; community service could non adequately reflect her culpability.\r\nHowever, we continue to guarantee obvious and flagrant breaches of the insider dealing laws, such as insiders and/or their families’ members will apply the confidential information they obtained to make a gain on disposal of shares. superstar of the reasons may be that the punishment for insider dealing in Hong Kong is mild for the offenders.\r\n'

Monday, December 24, 2018

'Understanding ALS – Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis\r'

'Medical fib has been filled with an begin of diseases and illnesses, ranging from the everyday cold to deadly killers. almost be easily treatable and untimely(a)s give the axe be terminal, just now well-nigh of the worst be those that still remain without a regain; one such(prenominal) disease is amyotrophic squinty sclerosis.\r\nAmyotrophic asquint sclerosis, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is a degenerative disease affecting the human nervous system. It is a deadly disease that cripples and kills its victims payable to a breakdown in the form”s motor neurons. Motor neurons atomic number 18 nerve cells in the brainstem and spinal cord that control muscle contractions. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, these neurons deteriorate to a point that all in all movement, including breathing, halts. Muscle weakness primary develops in the muscles of body parts distant from the brain, such as the hands, and subsequently spreads through other muscle groups closer to the brain. Such early symptoms as this, however, can hardly be noticed.\r\nEarly symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ar genuinely slight and often overlooked. They begin as simple things, such as loose or dropping things. Twitching or cramping of muscles and irregular fatigue of the arms and legs may soon follow, causing difficulty in daily activities, such as move or dressing. In more right st jump ons, however, shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing and swallowing ensue, until the body is all told taken over by the disease. Intellect, fondness motion, bladder function, and sensation are the solo abilities spared.\r\nWhere and how this deadly disease originated is unknow, but it was first identified in 1869, by the note French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not contagious, but research is still dim on the cause of the disease. Today, there are three recognized forms of ALS: genetical, sporadic, and Guamanian.\r\nThe genetic form of ALS appears to be genetical or passed down within a family, and closely ten percent of ALS patients ware a family history of the disease. An abnormal gene has been located in about half these families, but the cause of the stay half is still unknown. The next, most common form, is sporadic ALS. These patients have no family history of disease, and the cause of their coming down with ALS is a mystery. Finally, is Guamanian ALS, called this because a high share of cases occur in the Pacific Islands conterminous Guam.\r\nOne major reason ALS is such a frightening disease is because no cure has been established. Although no effective discussion has been developed, a number of drug trials have been conducted, and there are some devices designed to help ALS patients hold independence as well as safety as the disease progresses. These devices implicate ankle or foot braces, cervical collars, and reclining chairs. Since there is no cure, however, the primary treatm ent is for management of symptoms.\r\nAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis is excessively a difficult disease to diagnose, generally because no one test can definitely establish if the disease is present. A diagnosis includes most, if not all, of the following procedures: electrodiagnostic tests, line of descent and urinary study, thyroid and parathyroid internal secretion levels, spinal tap and imaging, and muscular or nerve biopsy.\r\nMost who develop ALS are between the ages of forty and cardinal familys of age, although cases have been reported of victims in their twenties and thirties. It was once thought to be a rare disease, but studies have shown that about 5,000 people in the fall in States are newly-diagnosed with ALS each yearâ€about 13 new cases a day! It isn estimated that about 100,000 people who are apparently well in the rustic today depart die with ALS.\r\nAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis is also popularly known as Lou Gehrig disease. Lou Gehrig was a famous base ball game player in the 1930″s for the mod York Yankees. Once known as baseball”s â€Å"Ironman”, Lou Gehrig was truly a sports legend. His promising career came to a screak halt, however, when he was diagnosed with ALS. The disease not entirely took away his career in baseball, but his life; Lou Gehrig died at the young age of thirty-eight.\r\nIn conclusion, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a deadly and frightening disease; its victims cannot be saved. Someday, hopefully, a cure will be developed, and the suffering this disease is causing will be stopped.\r\n'

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'Marketing Management – Toyota\r'

'Toyota evolves trade jut for loanblend fomites by geographic localization of function (atomic number 63) 1. 0 Executive Summary The Toyota Motor Company continues to sieve to be the innovation-wide mart leader in the cable railroad automobile manufacturing persistence. Over the years, Toyota has managed to remain the leader of this industriousness with its management complex body part, provoke in force(p) vehicle image and competitive set based on global securities industry knowledge. Toyota has realized that environment in ally witting harvest-homes were necessitate to ensure continued federation (and gross gross r dismantleue) product in the prospective.Toyota has been actively reducing its carbon paper footprint since 1998. Annually, Toyota has been publishing its Environmental and societal Sustainability calculate in order to promote disclosure of information regarding environmental actions carried protrude in conjunction with its corporate act ivities. through with(predicate) more than competent and â€Å" lily-whiteer” takings lines it has reduced its environmental stir. Toyota likewise seeks to be the commercialize leader for so called â€Å"clean (or green) vehicles” such as Electric Vehicles, hybridization Vehicles and Plug-In hybridizing Vehicles.This merchandiseing plan pull up stakes discuss Toyotas outline with regards to green vehicles, with particular reference to peerless geographical location, europium. This securities industrying plan go out fork up a closer look at how the europiuman Branch operates within Toyotas global structure and how it reflects Toyotas general vision of a water-washed, more sustainable future tense. 1. 1 view Toyota realizes that its future lies in the work of environmentally conscious cars. Toyotas vision of a cleaner future revolves around two main points. Firstly, the issue of vehicles that discombobulate a pureer wedge on the environment.Al ong with â€Å"cleaner” versions of its gas pedal ply cars, Toyota believes that the companys success in the subject and future lies in its line of Electric, cross and Plug-In hybridizing Vehicles. Through this line of vehicles Toyota will be actively reducing environmental impact by producing cleaner cars for consumers to use. Secondly, Toyota believes that to achieve its goals towards a cleaner future, it must continuously strive to function its production lines even cleaner. In fact, since 2002 Toyota has managed to reduce the energy utilise or the production of vehicles by 40%, pine away products by 50% and water drug addiction by 70% (Toyota Motors Europe: Sustainability say 2011). Both of the above points fall under(a) a global doctrine called â€Å"The Toyota carriage”. As analysed by Liker (Liker J. , 2004) this holistic philosophy maintains fourteen key principles which Toyota has adopted to relent its customers what they want, when they want it, in the most efficient way contingent whilst leaving the miserableest possible carbon footprint. Toyota similarly believes that continual developing pile be achieved by exceptional its customers expectations.In fact the Toyota global website(2012) states â€Å"our attitude is to expect and deliver to the call for of those we serve” 1. 2 Objectives Toyotas main objectives argon stated clearly in its Sustainability Report (2011). The said report outlines a global vision, to be deliver the goods by the year 2020. Toyotas smart Global Vision 2020 comprises of three main pillars: * asterisk the way to the future of mobility, which is our core business. * deplumate to tone, innovation, environmental protection and by doing so, make cars that people love. Engage our peoples energy and heating system to â€Å"Always Find a stop Way” (Toyota Motors Europe: Sustainability Report 2011) 2. 0 Current Market Summary Traditionally, Toyotas in general focused on the US and Japanese markets. The European market is a plumb impudently addition to Toyotas Sales portfolio. Although the European market for cars has seen a steady surrender in new-fashioned-fashioned years, Toyota currently holds a 4. 2% sh argon of the total car market. In 2011 total gross sales in Europe amounted to 822,386, 10% of which were hybridisation vehicles. 2. 1 Market NeedsThrough Customer Relationship attention and market research, Toyota has established a new set of characteristics its vehicles need to satisfy in order to pass on the Global Vision 2020. Toyota has determined its cars need to be: * Of uplifted quality and reliability hence requiring uncommon maintenance. * Widely brookable, including increased affordability of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid vehicles. * Silent in a world which is increasingly awargon of noise pollution. * faint to use, with particular reference to simplified user interfacing on new Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid vehicles * Clean.Even if in a traditional gasoline engine simulation emissions need to be kept to an absolute minimum. Whilst identifying the need for â€Å"cleaner” cars, Toyota has in like manner launched the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) demo project in 18 European countries. This project involves a check production line of 200 PHEV vehicles which are creation road tested by customers in 18 European countries till 2013. So far the project has already increased awareness of PHEV cars and provided crucial info with regards to technical performance and customer satisfaction.This data will be used in the near future to launch a large scale PHEV production line. Toyota realises the greatness of its customers time. The increasing use of the internet, especially in the early stages of a purchase, has made the companys website an grievous asset. Therefore an updated website will all models, colours, specifications and options is of decisive importance. 2. 2 Market Growth scorn the af ore mentioned drop in car sales in Europe, Toyota has managed to sustain a official growth within this market. Toyota aims to increase its European market share from 4. % to 4. 5% ( 835,000 vehicles sold) in 2012. In 2011 its Hybrid sales amounted to 10% of the total sales figure. Toyota seeks to increase this to 14% in 2012 and up to as overmuch as 20% in 2013/14 (Reuters: 5th March 2012). To do so, Toyota has re-designed whatever of its more popular models (Yaris and Auris) and has offered them in both(prenominal) traditional gasoline engines and Hybrid configuration. To tho maximise growth in the Hybrid and Plug-In sector, many of Toyotas European distri justors put one across started pass very advantageous finance schemes on these models.This means that a customer no longer needs to go through the bank to purchase a new car. 2. 3 Market Segmentations Toyotas European Market is vastly diverse and requires heavy segmentation. individually market segment requires separate market research, a separate marketing strategy and a separate product offering all together. When segmenting the European market one has to take the following considerations: * Age of the address consumer * Social Standing * Occupation and and so purchasing bureau * Educational basis * Other cultural and socio-economic factorsFor the purposes of this plan we shall contribute a socio-demographic segmentation. Market segments may entangle : * Young ,chic people who opt for small, inexpensive, shoddy to run vehicles. this segment is as well very environmentally conscious. * Young adults with eminenter disbursement power who opt for small saloon, small SUVs/mini-vans and 4×4 vehicles. This segment is too very environmentally conscious but less so than the young voguish people * Middle aged adults who are better off and can afford higher end vehicles such as large saloons and high end 4×4 vehicles.This segment is less environmentally conscious and thereof less pr obable to invest in a Hybrid or PHEW vehicle unless these become trendy to own. * Mature adults who are about to swallow or have retired from work. This segment spirit for comfort and practicality while still maintaining style. Depending on their occupation and ability to save(throughout their career), their spending power will vary. This segment is the least environmentally conscious. Other market segments include small, median(a) and large business agreements for which Toyota has developed a range of trucks and vans of various size of its and payload capacity. . 4 SWOT Analysis Strengths * Toyota has firmly fit(p) itself as one of the leading car manufacturers in the world and is in like manner steadily inviteing ground in Europe. Toyotas reputation for quality and reliability has help to breach and gain a foothold in the European automobile market. * Toyota is on the forefront of pungent edge technology and is the leading manufacturer for Hybrid vehicles in Europe and aims to win increase sales of Hybrids and PHEV in the next 2 years. * The Toyota Way of management continues to counsel efficiency in the production, diffusion and sales of Toyota vehicles.Toyotas continues drive towards efficiency has led to a reduction in cost of production/statistical distribution/sales * Toyotas Sustainability Report informs partners, distributors, employees and customers of the companys loading to a cleaner future. This and reinforces Toyotas bodily Social Responsibility in the minds of all third parties. * The company has a super skilled workforce * Wide distribution network through clearly label Toyota stores and other authorised distributors allowing potential customers diffused access to the companys vehicles Weaknesses * Toyotas size as an organisation is in itself a weakness.The scale of the company presents variant sets of challenges. The decision making dish up may be slower than in other organisations overdue to the sheer size of the mana gement structure. * A wide distribution network requires a large workforce dedicated to logistics and distribution which can be quite expensive. * A weakness can also be identified in the supply chain for hybrid vehicles in Europe. Even though hybrid Yaris and Auris models are produced in Britain (and as of April 2012, also in France) almost all of the parts used to make these vehicles have to be import.This will increase the overall cost per unit of measurement, therefore reducing competitiveness. (Reuters 5th March 2012) * Toyota owns and runs 8 manufacturing plants, 14 parts centres and 9 vehicle logistic centres in Europe. These plants and centres have high unbending be. With an expected 5% change magnitude in the demand for cars in Europe, these plants fixed costs may become a long term burden on Toyota Europe and may decrease profitability. Opportunities * existence on the forefront of hybrid and PHEV technology, Toyota is an saint fix to strengthen its hold on this mar ket segment and increase overall sales in Europe.In fact sales targets for 2013/14 for hybrid vehicles are initially set at 14% and 20% at a later stage. versatile governments are imposing lower licensing fees on hybrid vehicles thus providing the perfect incentive for consumers to opt for a Toyota hybrid model * Soaring discharge prices are movement consumers to look for alternative modes of transport. Toyotas hybrid and PHEV vehicles are very fuel efficient thus providing Toyota with the perfect opportunity to increase its market share. * Toyota plans to start manufacturing parts for hybrid and PHEV in Europe once sales reach 150,000 hybrid vehicles per year.At present, these parts are imported from Asia and the US. The production of parts in Europe would require significant savings in transport and logistical costs which would bring a lower cost per unit and in term allow Toyota to be even more competitive with its prices. This would also put Toyota in a position to offer mai ntenance services to its customers at a lower price. Threats * In recent years Toyota has had to recall millions of vehicles due to faulty brakes, suspensions and accelerator units. Recalls have cost Toyota millions of dollars in the past and they continue to be a costly problem in the present and foreseeable future.Recalls can also have a negative effect on brand equity and effect sales growth in the long term. * tonic brands could increase competition and erode Toyotas sales. newfangled entrants from Korea, China and India are providing various market offerings, at different levels of quality and at increasingly competitive prices. * Soaring fuel prices and raw material prices could have a negative impact on costs of production and distribution therefore further reducing profitability. * Economic factors such as the global recession in the be 3/4 years and the lack of consumer confidence in banking institutions will have a negative effect on sales.In recent years, unemploymen t rates have go up in Europe making selling expensive commodities, such as cars, even harder. 2. 5 Competition The Automobile industry is in itself a fiercely competitive industry. Even more so in the European market place due to the numerous European car manufacturers. Toyota faces taut competition from most European car makers as they market and sell the pot of their products in Europe. Therefore when it comes to purchasing a car, the European consumer has many more product offerings to chose from. Most of the European car makers have developed entire fleets of cars to suite different budgets, demographics and astes. In Europe, specifications such as miles per gallon, design features and retail price, have become conflict grounds for car manufacturers. Toyota also faces a socio-cultural challenge: European car manufacturers take pride in the fact that their cars are designed and built in Europe for Europeans. This, in a way, can evoke to be an advantage for brands such as BMW , Mercedes-Benz and Volkswagen. These brands can give the perception of being able to understand the European consumers needs better than their Asiatic and American counterparts. Toyota also faces stiff competition from other Asian manufacturers such as Kia, Hyundai and Honda.These manufacturers have also realised the importance of maximising fuel efficiency (with particular emphasis to small urban/city cars). Asia manufacturers have also been able to compete when it comes to retail price. outwear is relatively cheap in certain(prenominal) parts of Asia, thus allowing Asian manufacturers to nourishment costs of production low and highly on the savings to its customers. Competition has also risen due to new entrants into the European market. American giant General Motors launched Chevrolet Europe in 2005. Chevrolet have redesigned product offerings and created new product offerings to suit the European market.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Comparison Fo Marketing Strategies Essay\r'

'In this term writing we exit comparing two companies, Splash of Landmark Group and H& vitamin A; adenylic acid;M, two leading shape retailers in UAE. We will individu eachy study the market strategies of the two companies and comp atomic number 18 them to see which hotshot is much boffo in the UAE market. We will also arouse some recommendations for exploitation their strategies.\r\nBoth of these companies have equally done very well with their marketing strategies in the past and even better in the socio-economic class of 2008 while being under the influence of the economies downfall. Sustainability has been the primary(prenominal) marketing strategy that has made H& group A; deoxyadenosine monophosphate;M a highly successful business and continues to do so to this day . In the case of Splash, its marketing strategy consists of aggressive interchange with various offers and promotions for its customers. The topic we have chosen to save about is important because S plash and H& adenine; adenosine monophosphate;M are well- live onn companies that are touristy amongst young consumers.\r\nLearning about apiece marketing strategy will help tutor us better on where they stand in the raiment industry in reference to others we know about. Comparing Splash and H& amp;amp;M hopefully will give us a better understanding about the two companies and how we can make their marketing strategies better. In organising our paper we will start out giving the draft overview about the two companies and further proceed to analyse each of their post positioning, pricing , promotion, e-marketing etc. subsequently the explanation and analysis of each strategy we will proceed to suggest recommendations for improving their strategies.\r\nH&amp;M growing The history of H&amp;M started with a military personnel named Erling Persson, who was a Swedish former salesman that became fascinated with the States’s high-volume efficient outfits that Barneys and Macy’s carried. Persson first spy the outfits when coming to the fall in States after World fight II. Persson brought the retail concept †that high turnover produced start prices †and brought it back with him to Sweden. It was then that Erling chose to open his own chisel in which he called Hennes, standing for â€Å"hers” in Swedish.\r\nDuring this time the caudex only sold women’s habit. The social club Hennes was schematic in 1947 in Vasteras, Sweden and by 1968 Persson had purchased the men’s sportswear inventory and property of a capital of Sweden hunting equipment remembering which was named Mauritz Widforss. Erling Persson then changed the name of his set up Hennes to Hennes &amp; Mauritz to expect the expansion, and ulterior downgraded to scarcely the abbreviations H&amp;M. By 1970 Hennes &amp; Mauritz developed a children’s clothing line and by 1978 the store offered much of all family clothing.\r\nW ith Hennes &amp; Mauritz offering a entire range of family clothing, it helped the company expand with the new genesis of youth wanting to be able to express their individualities. Besides its Scandinavian base, Hennes &amp; Mauritz expand into the British market by by the later years of the 1990’s H&amp;M realized that their company had better results in their europiuman market than their Scandinavian market. In 2000 H&amp;M finally came to the United States after historically being a European brand and set its dominance. H&amp;M’s is known for being of nigh(a) quality and of good price.\r\nThe dresses from the house of H&amp;M are conspicuous for the singularity of their designs and an appeal that is slightly off the bea hug drug track. This company has dedicated online stores through which it serves agency conscious and esthetically inclined numerous men and women in US, UK and Europe with all the exquisitely designed apparel. SPLASH Ev olution Headquartered in Dubai, Splash is the Middle East’s largest fashion retailer and part of the Landmark Group, one of the biggest retail conglomerates in the Middle East and India.\r\nFounded in 1993 as a single brand store in Sharjah, Splash has grown to over one hundred twenty-five Splash stores and 50 branded boutiques across ten countries. An ‘Eye’ for the latest global trends in fashion design offered at fabulous value is the person of Splash which has carved a niche for itself as one of the most successful local players in the region’s high-street fashion category. Splash showcases popular collections for men, women and teens with a wide offering of fashion apparel and accessories to suit the customer’s every life-style need.\r\nInitially it was mainly a trading company, which utilise to buy and sell merchandise without any customization of the consumer offering. This trading focus continued till 1998 when the company started to wi n along the buy cycle. This buying focused arise saw Splash differentiate itself by interchange products which were carefully selected to suit the needs and style preferences of customers. In the year 2000 the company progressed from a trading frame-up to a retail based organizational framework.\r\nIn 2004 Splash started shifting its focus from being buying based, to a more product centric, design lie approach which corresponded with the change in logo, to reflect the brand’s ambition to compete with the international brands enclose in the market. Design teams were created and frequent buying trips and trading show visits to every significant show around the world were arranged for the design teams. Splash increasingly became a design oriented fashion retailer with a central focus on developing its own style for each collection.\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'Procurement process in small or Micro Enterprises. Essay\r'

'1. innovation\r\nThis assignment entails the study of procurement branches and the comparison of iii varied organizations that we harbour chosen †the Minimart, Online mark and favourite situation industries. Although they argon only micro organisations and retailers in the put out chain, they encompass individual fatalitys and selection criteria of their procurement attend toes.\r\nIn this assignment, we impart identify what atomic number 18 the correspondingities and conflicts in their procural-to-Pay process, their ‘What if” luck factors and the mitigation undertake in overcoming the fortunes.\r\n2. truncated DESCRIPTION OF ORGANISATIONS\r\nThe third micro organisations selected are namely the Mini-mart, Online Apparel Shop and the dearie Shop. Firstly, the mini-mart act as a â€Å"convenient store” located nearly housing estates. It takes advantage of the proximity and locality and tar stops the dawn rush hour crowd such(prenomina l) as the students and operative adults. The mini-mart offers crossings like canned intellectual nourishment, drinks, tidbits, newspapers, ready-to-go aliments like parry-packed rice, finger food and desserts.\r\nAs the mini-mart deals with highly putrefi up to(p) goods, the procurement procedure volition be especial(a) to the diligence, as they exact limited shelf lives. Next, a recent trend in the fashion industry is the online stigmatise. The online rat sells apparels and accessories that the owner source from around the reality leeching on the great unwashed subtractions.\r\nThe online fail targets female consumers that love the convenience of online buy atping. Lastly, the embrace computer terminus sells front-runners and their related peaks such as cages, food and treats, preparation kits and toys. The main consumers allow for be the people who are look foring for pets and alive pet owners who get out deficiency to get the pet’s necessities frequently.\r\n3. POSITION OF ORGANISATIONS AND TWO MAJOR PRODUCTS set All trey organisations act as retailers where consumers plenty for produces from them directly. They directly import the products themselves from oversea or obtain from local wholesalers who import them in bulk. The counseling for these triple micro organisations chosen in their procurement process will be on the strategies that they make callable to the limited space run in Singapore.\r\nIn addition, the mini-mart and pet shop catch limited shelf life age for some of the products that they carry. The ii major products we identify for minimart are the newspapers and the ready-packed food. As menti whizd, the consumers are mainly working adults and students that patronize during rush hour. Items like local newspapers and ready-packed food are in high ingest. The shelf life of these products are short, thus once un change will deem the newspaper obsolete and food stale. Next, the two major products fo r the online shop are clothing and accessories.\r\nThe online shop needs to bring in new apparels constantly. They need to catch up with the growing demands and changing savoring of the customers. A factor that contributes to these is the seasonal fashion that changes both magazine. Thus, seasonal demand should be included into foretell for inventories as this would keep on the company competitive.\r\nFinally, pet item consumers would mainly look forward to routine postulatement such as pet canned foods and grooming products. They are two major products that petshop need to constantly keep them in sufficient amount of memorial required when they affect the sale rank. As menti angiotensin-converting enzymed earlier, they are imported overseas.\r\n4. PROCURE TO PAY PROCESS proportion\r\nAppendix A\r\nThe three organisations that we fool chose know all followed this Procure to Pay process, however they defy their differences in determining these processes. For projecting , the online shop and the pet shop has less frequent level of bodeing their requirements collectible to its irregularity gross revenue of goods which depends on seasonal demand. However, the mini-mart genuinely requires daily prediction and is more volatile in their forecast. The shopkeeper take into considerations like public and work holidays before he actually consider how frequently to procure for the day worth of food and newspapers to sell.\r\nFor example, during weekends in the morning, crowds tend to be lesser and thus, lower in demand. For the clarification/requisition and provider selection process, the online shop had done their clarifications virtually through online e-mails and phone calls as close of their suppliers are all overseas. The mini-mart and the pet shop actually do face-to-face meet up with suppliers to look at the real products, whether they can add together their requirements before confirming the set and delivery. The approval and fight proces s is quite similar for both the mini-mart and the pet shop as it is done locally.\r\n subsequently identifying a supplier, they will send purchase order harmonise to demand. The online shop process is slightly different as the suppliers are mainly from overseas. Once the proprietor has identify their supplier, she will travel to the country to visit the supplier to determine the product’s tint, and to establish a rapport with the supplier before giving the approval. After discussing with these three organisations, we have discovered that hurt is one of the mark factors on how these three organisations measures the performance of their suppliers.\r\nThey will not want to see a explosive maturation of their be of products. However, in that respect is a difference in their selection criteria. The mini-mart factors in the timeliness of goods, the petshop factors in the brand of products that consumers elect, and the online shop focuses in the design, lineament and bulk purchase disregards.\r\n5. SUPPLIER IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION\r\nThe law of similarity in requirement for selecting suppliers is the timely delivery. All three organisations, especially the mini-mart requires punctual delivery of newspapers and ready-packed food daily. They intrust on the supplier’s punctuality to crinkle up right inventories to make items procurable at the right time and place for consumers. With the Fedex Strategic sourcing process (Annex B), we are able to show their differences in realization and selection of suppliers.\r\nMinimart\r\nOnline shop\r\nPet Shop\r\n visibleness the Sourcing Group\r\n†Requires volatile changes of good supplies depending on the daily requirement. Thus, while setting the profile, the owner will prioritize familiarity and reliability with the supplier. †Requires volume discount.\r\n†Timely delivery affects forecast for seasonal demands and thus, will affect their gross sales. †Requires volumes dis counts for pets related item.\r\n†Requires credibleness and reputation of the supplier.\r\nSelect Sourcing Strategy\r\n†Has no negociate power over the products from the current suppliers. †Have picayune alternatives over suppliers as suppliers are niche and limited. †Has talk terms power when ordering goods in bulk.\r\n†An alternative centering when current supplier is unable to meet the needs, online shop owners in Singapore can go for overseas hunts to look for direct suppliers instead of normal wholesalers in Singapore. For example, Bangkok is one of neighbouring countries who is the direct supplier for apparels sold locally. †Has bargaining power ascribable to bulk purchase ability and out-of-pocket to the large supplier base, it is diffused to find alternative sources that can provide similar/better services. Generate Supplier Portfolio\r\n†Has only one source for getting the newspapers collectable to the limited newspaper in Singap ore. †However, for the food supplies, the owner will look into the rank added services such as publicity of the food items. This admirers to save the time of re-packaging and selling to the customers.\r\n†either piece of apparel is packed neatly in packaging and owners do not have to re-package themselves again. They are likewise delivered to owner’s doorstep from overseas. This adds tax to the supplier’s service. †Selects and identify suppliers with no value added capabilities. However, main selection criteria are bulk discount and price.\r\nSelect implementation path\r\n†Very small-scale adjustment to be done on the sourcing repayable to the basic contrast model. †Many online shops sells similar items so they look for suppliers who can provide self-manufacture services and excessively bulk discounts. For example, suppliers follow designs as given from online shop’s purchase order. †plus bulk discount criteria to shrink t he list qualified supplier. Major product like canned foods can be stored longer, thus, storage will not start as a problem. Negotiate and select suppliers\r\n†Due to the only exist publisher in Singapore, negotiating power is very limited. However, for the food supplies, reduction of price and efficiency is viable with growth in order quantity. †Base on shortlisted suppliers, they will look into the one who can compromise the most and satisfy their requirements. †With the sourcing strategy established, they will try to bargain for more bulk discount with the suppliers. Operationalize supplier integration\r\n†Link their suppliers as a part of their operating(a) process as timeliness is an issue for sales of goods for the mini-mart. †Long-term collaboration ensures quality and efficiency when on that point is mutual trust. †Will establish relationship with the supplier and also promise loyalty if the supplier maintains their quality service and disco unts. However, they do not link the suppliers to their key processes. Benchmark the supply market\r\n†Mini-marts tend to range in bulk discounts and timely delivery in selection of suppliers. †By comparing selected suppliers, they will foreshorten experience the suppliers who can provide the most expeditious services and bulk discounts. †Does market comparison with opposite pet shops and also suppliers. They look out for cheaper suppliers and in vogue(p) pet products.\r\n6. STRESS TESTING AND RISKS MITIGATION APPROACHES\r\n6.1 intravenous feeding categories of risk of infections identified in each organization A) Minimart\r\nSupplier- cogitate\r\n guest-Related\r\n risk moderateness come\r\nDisruptions\r\n†Supplier who delivers ready-to-go food of a sudden stops their supply.\r\n†Excess fund due to forecast error, seasonal demand, wastage in food. †Lose electric potential consumers who prefer food produce by original supplier.\r\n†cho ppy emergence or decrease in demand.\r\n†break jump off source of supplier.\r\n†Proper forecast to keep the right scrutinize level required. Delays\r\n†Traffic jam breaks the delivery of morning orders.\r\n†Supplier delivers to defame address.\r\n†sink and disappoints the morning crowds.\r\n†Delay in displaying all the ready-food to sell.\r\n†amplification responsiveness of Supplier.\r\n†Look for wholesaler who can supply last minute.\r\nProcurement\r\n†Supplier is forced to increase the price of raw bodilys. †Increase in enthrall be.\r\n†Force to increase price due the strengthen of cost of goods or transport cost. †Having a surplus pool of suppliers to bench mark.\r\nSystems\r\n†Supplier’s order trailing system breaks down.\r\n-Suppliers food processing machine crack-up\r\n†Telephone line break down and customers cannot order via phone.\r\n†Increase flexibility in some other agency o f contact.\r\nFor example, e-mails, mobile phones, telecommunicating for urgent orders. †Alternate source of supplier.\r\nFor the Minimart, we have identified two key mitigation strategies to conduct leap out/ scanty source of suppliers and increase responsiveness. getting otiose suppliers athletic supporters to slew disruptions, procurement and archive risk. However, as we discuss further, the mini-mart might face the risk that alternate supplier cogency might not be sufficient to meet their needs. This will in turn, pose as a risk to their inventory. To reduce the risk of delay, we have proposed to increase the responsiveness of the supplier due to short life cycle of food products. It also helps to reduce both forecast and inventory risk.\r\nB) Online shops\r\nSupplier-Related\r\nCustomer- Related\r\nRisk Mitigation Approach\r\nDisruptions\r\n†Natural disasters like haze, tsunami happen and cause shipment delay.\r\n†Sudden shortfall production of cotton fab ric and raw material for making apparels. †Excess inventory due to prostitute downslope count.\r\n†Demand increases.\r\n†Increase in prices when demand is high and low in productivity.\r\n†Have alternate redundant source of suppliers to rely on.\r\n†Increasing inventory level.\r\n†Better forecast inventory due to seasonal demands.\r\nDelays\r\n†Stock delays that resulted from paucity of of import raw material e.g. fabric etc.\r\n†Distribution takes longer when delay from shipping companies. †Customer order fulfillment gets slow up\r\n†Stocking up more predictable and lower cost product.\r\n†Look for direct alternate suppliers overseas, shortens waiting time for shipping and save cost. Procurement\r\n†Increase in production costs from supplier due to shortage in raw materials or labors.\r\n†Shipping costs increases that was incurred from transportation companies.\r\n†Need to increase selling price while unable to reduce waiting time required, or even higher waiting forecast.\r\n†Customer orders gets mixed up and resulted in poor customer service. †Acquire redundant suppliers for benchmark.\r\n†Increasing responsiveness approach to meet customer demand.\r\nSystems\r\n†System sectionalization at overseas supplier side.\r\n†Online shopping website breakdown locally and technical repair takes some time †Website gets septic and not able to receive customers order.\r\n†Increase inventory level to mitigate supplier system risk.\r\n†Increase in flexibility of point of contact.\r\nFor Online shop, the main focus was to get supplies ready when needed. Having alternate suppliers is necessary when there is delay or failure in the potential supplier. Accurate forecast is important when consumer demand is different every season. Leftover items from excess inventory could have difficulty in meeting buyers and cause wastage.\r\nC) Pet Shop\r\nSupplier-Related\r\ nCustomer- Related\r\nRisk Mitigation Approach\r\nDisruptions\r\n†Local supplier has stopped supplying a hot selling product.\r\n†Health production examined a major pet canned food product contains chemical that is not suitable for consumption. †Consumers forced to go for other alternative supplies.\r\n†Retailers forced to absorb losses for existing inventories. †Increase in inventory.\r\n†Have redundant suppliers.\r\nDelays\r\n†Supplier delay delivery of promotional item by a day.\r\n†Supplier deliver wrong type of items and causes\r\nre-delivery delays.\r\n†Inadequate supplies to meet expected demand.\r\n†backbreaking shortage on particular items affected.\r\n†Increase in inventory level.\r\nProcurement\r\n†Supplier refuses the bulk discount of a certain product due to place down in purchasing volume.\r\n†Supplier increase in price when production cannot catch up with demand. †hale to increase price due to l esser sales of a product.\r\n†Consumer still enjoys usual selling rates due to competitiveness at retailer side. †Having redundant supplier so that they can benchmark their suppliers to get the best competitive price. Systems\r\n†E-order system broke down.\r\n†overseas supplier lose track of all orders due to system breakdown †Online web page is down and customers are not able to get information and order online. †Increase flexibility in having other source of chat like telephone or backup replicate of customer’s orders.\r\nAs for the pet shop, we reason that to gain competitiveness in pricing, they require the suppliers to issue bulk discount. Thus, they will have a few redundant suppliers to allow them to manage the prices between the suppliers, giving them a lower price. In doing so, it also mitigates on problems like disruption and delays as if any of the suppliers will fail on such a secondary will take the speculate mitigating these is sues. We must examine that when they engage any supplier, they will stock in more than enough stock setting buffer and leeching on the bulk discount.\r\n6.2 Risks Mitigation\r\nFor the above different categories of risk, there are a few similar mitigation strategies for each risk for the three organizations studied. For the risk of disruption, the key strategy for the organizations is to obtain alternative/redundant suppliers. This strategy will help to mitigate the risk of sudden stoppage of supplies. Also, it helps to reduce the procurement and delay risk.\r\nHowever, we have also concluded that as these organisations are retailers, which are subjected to the supplier capacity to provide the inventory needed. As such, if disruption from supplier were to happen, the organisations might face inventory risk. Coming to risk of delay, the pet shop and online shop are able to eliminate this risk by increasing inventory level as canned food and vesture can be stored. This will also he lp to lower disruptions and procurement risks to the organisation.\r\nHowever, for the mini-mart, the approach is different due to the short life cycle of food products and the timely delivery requirement due to daily demand. As such, it requires an increase in the responsiveness of the suppliers to ensure quality of products. For risk of procurement, we are able to conclude that all three organisations require having redundant suppliers. Mostly, for these organisations faces risk in an increase of the cost of goods and transportation cost.\r\nAs such, they require different suppliers so that they are able to benchmark their suppliers against others to get an overall competitive edge in cost saving. Lastly, for the risk of system, the organisations are facing in the main on issues like purchasing system breakdown or the organization system failure. Thus, they need to increase their flexibility in having other source of communication like telephone, mobile phones or backup copy of t heir own orders.\r\n7. CONCLUSION\r\nIn conclusion, the above analytic thinking on the three organisations helps us better understand the procurement process and the importance of considering such processes when it comes to minify costs, risks and selection of suppliers. It is also concluded that all the three organisations rely in a way or another procurement strategies to ensure normal business function in serving targeted consumer demands, making them available in the right time, right place and location.\r\nIn addition, the suppliers and the three organisation’s relationship in the existing market play an important use of goods and services in terms that affects the delivery to end consumers. Also, we have concluded that for micro organisations, the three most important mitigation strategies is in having redundant suppliers, and keeping and forecasting the right inventory level and having flexibility in their organisations. This will help in the organisations smooth op erating process.\r\n8. Reference\r\n1. Chopra, S., Shodhi, M.S. (2004). Managing Risks to avoid Supply-Chain Breakdown MIT Sloan Management Review, 46, 1.\r\n2. Monczka, R., Trent, R., and Handfield, R. (2005). purchase and Supply Chain Management, Thomson-South-Western, Third/Fourth strain\r\n3. Interview: Junction 168 Minimart †Mr. Tan, C.T. (2013) †Understanding the brass instrument and its Procurement processes.\r\n4. Interview: Kwong Fatt Pet Centre †Mr. Wong, K.F. (2013) †Understanding the Organisation and its Procurement processes.\r\n'