Monday, September 30, 2019
Culture is a set of values and beliefs that influence the effectiveness also strategy formulation. It is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that people learn to produce behavioural norm. Poverty is being unable to provide yourself with comfort and material needs. Culture of poverty shows that those who are poor stay in poverty due to adapting the poverty burden. The world eliminates the culture of poverty through education and get their priorities straight and create micro-culture where the whole world will belong (Bass, 2005) I agree with the position that the poor are largely responsible for their own poverty because when they realize they are poor instead of working hard they start feeling helpless and not belonging and they feel that the society do not serve their needs. They feel they have no power therefore can not try to change their situation for the better and feel they are inferior and think that the rich are superior which make them not put effort to change their situation for the better. The poor also feel that they are unworthy and do not form any racial group and feel that they are unworthy and do not form any racial group and feel that they are discriminated by the members of the society. People who are poor do not know any history o becoming rich and acquiring wealth, they only know heir problems and shortcomings; they recognize only the poor conditions and only their neighborhood which is also living in poverty. Poor people have no knowedge, vision or ideas to compare themselves with other people who are rich for example they do not care whether they are in high class or low class. The poor should be encouraged to work hard and not accept the poverty burden in order to improve their lifestyle. CAUSES OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY RACISM This is the existence of a higher race and a lower race due to the higher race having superiority complex. This is as a result of having supernatural gifts that others do not have or being gifted in hunting and being courageous and being known to excel in war. this is recognized by possession of trophies gained after being a winner. The looser becomes the victim of the conqueror. When an individual experience personal superiority and see others as inferior social inequality will always be experienced (Fanning, 2000) SOCIAL STRATIFICATION This is where women politically and socially feel inferior. Old people are respected only when they are strong. In some tribes people rank high when they are initiated and also when they are granted new names. people are grouped together and accorded status depending on which group they belong either poor or rich. There are caste system where each individual is born in for example in India Brahmin is the caste at the top and untouchables is the bottom caste which is based on good or bad conduct. In Britain land was owned by nobility depending on family tradition, conduct or privileged who were the ruling group. SEXISM This is discriminating one another basing on gender for example women discrimination. These are attitudes or behaviours that make social roles to be stereotyped basing on gender. this also involves abusive behaviour to a person of opposite sex. In work place women are excluded in employment to the benefit of men. Employers fail to recruit women even though they have same or even higher qualifications than men. Women are also denied positions in politics whereby men dominate parliament with women being the minority. Sexism causes social inequality because women feel inferior to men and belief that they are weak and unproductive, they regard themselves with low esteem . they fail to use ideas they have and are not innovative. This makes all the work to be left to men to do and social inequality will always affect the society. EFFECTS OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY It brings about difference in religion where we have Christians, Muslims or Hindus of different religion and beliefs. Social class arises whereby those who belief they belong to same social class work together and leave out those of different social class (Bowen, 1948) Some people think they are inferiors and other superior leading to division and lack of unity. In terms of skin colour, there is radical distinction between black and white people. It can cause mental illness due to lack of improved technology and skills in treating illness. Low income earners lack basic needs due to lack of enough money to finance their basic needs. Unequal distribution of wealth between rich and poor in areas which are more productive than others for example mountain regions are more productive compared to lowland regions. REFERENCES 1. Madden Janice Fanning; Changes in Income inequality within US; W. E Upjohn Institute, 2000 2. Bowen Howard; Toward Social Economy; Rinehart, 1948 3. Bass Stephene; Reducing Poverty and sustaining the Environment; Earthscan,2005
Sunday, September 29, 2019
At the turn of the last century, WEB Dubois wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line, Ã¢â¬âthe relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America and the islands of the sea. Every study has come to the same conclusion that biologically, there are no Ã¢â¬ËracesÃ¢â¬â¢, yet the social construction of race as a category is alive and well today. The classification system, which radicalized different groups Ã¢â¬â typifying them according to their skin color and/or other defining features has a long history. With the advent of colonialism, racism underpinned the different and negative valuations attached to skin color. The racism of today is much more subtle and is no longer the blatant discrimination based on the color or your skin. It exists within the institutions of our society. It is the combination of government, corporate and media institutional racism that is largely responsible for the inequities of today. Unfortunately, these divisions impact the way in which we live our life and how we advance socially. Race has always been a complicated subject and is inevitable. Although we have made tremendous strides to dismantle the foundations of racism, it is clear and evident that racism still persists within the institutions of our society. I believe that America is one of greatest countries on the earth and it is a land of opportunity for everyone. The American dream is alive and well and many people of all races have had tremendous success. With these positives in place, it is no wonder why there have been so many incredible achievements by African Americans in the 21st century to include the obvious Ã¢â¬â the first black president. Over the years there has been much success in trying to dismantle discrimination against different races. By the time the modern civil rights movement arose during the mid-20th century, subjugation had prospered for nearly three hundred years. It was precisely this legalized subjugation that was the major target of the modern civil rights movement. Brown v. Board of Education was decided in 1954; Rosa Parks sat down in a Montgomery bus in 1955; the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place in 1963; and in an exhilarating five year period, three federal laws were passed-the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968-that taken together established a legal framework for racial justice. Over intense, opposition, the civil rights movement had succeeded, by 1968, in dismantling the legal structure of Jim Crow laws and replacing it with a legal structure designed to ensure equality and dismiss discrimination on all levels. Although these laws were very successful, you will still find racism within the institutions of our society. This Ã¢â¬Å"institutional racismÃ¢â¬ impacts every aspect of life in the 21st century from schooling to employment. It forms an invisible barrier that is hard to comprehend among all ethnic groups. Racism in our institutions can enter in every part of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life and make it extremely difficult to advance socially, financially or politically. What is even worse is that racism does not just affect individuals; it affects entire communities and has an affect African American progress in the 21st century. These divisions in society create a whole cycle. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t get the same job opportunities, you cannot afford the same education as some others, which lead to poor decisions because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know any better. It is not because they are inferior; it is because they do not have the same opportunities because of racial prejudice. Racism is present in government bodies, private business corporations, and universities. Redlining is a clear example of how institutional racism is present in our society. The ability of Banks, mega-corporations, and major financial institutions top pick winners and losers has setup a system of vast inequality between poor black communities and the middle class. Many of these private businesses use redlining to systematically shut minorities out of business opportunities, healthy food choices and banking options. Another example of how we see race in our society today is through college admissions. One of the first things we are asked to fill out in our applications is what race we are. Affirmative action has been created that takes factors such as race, gender, religion, into consideration in order to benefit an unrepresented group in education. This policy has been taken place in order to counter the effects of past discrimination. Although this seems like a good policy to equalize educational opportunity, it can also presents controversies on how different races are treated. For example, Abigail Fisher a white Texan was denied admissions into the University of Texas while less qualified Latinos and African Americans were accepted. University of MichiganÃ¢â¬â¢s college applications you automatically receive 20 points out of 100 if your black. The policies presented in the institutions of our society clearly present how race discrimination is still evident in our society. Because we have been so ingrained with racial differences it is hard to escape, we need to be willing to hold equal values for everyone in order to truly see change. As another major institution in society, the media plays a critical role in racial discrimination. They provide us with definitions about who we are as a nation; they reinforce our values and norms; they give us concrete examples of what happens to those who transgress these norms; and most importantly, they perpetuate certain ways of seeing the world and peoples within that world. Racism has been evident in media for quite some time and has influenced many people. Birth of the Nation by D. W. Griffith was one of the many ways that displayed African Americans as inferior. The film featured two themes in which suggested that the KKK had been responsible for quelling the unrest in the South after the civil war, and that African Americans were the cause of all the problems in the United States. Ã¢â¬Å"Griffith seared images of degraded images into the minds of millions. A whole new generation of consumers of American mass media was fed the same old stereotypes of shape images of African AmericansÃ¢â¬ (Lee Baker). Even as it did back then, the media still plays an important role in reinforcing our thoughts about racial inferiority. Today the Media have divided the working class and stereotyped young African-American males as gangsters or drug dealers. As a result of such treatment, the media have crushed youthsÃ¢â¬â¢ prospects for future employment and advancement. The media have focused on the negative aspects of the black community (e. g.engaging in drug use, criminal activity, welfare abuse) while maintaining the cycle of poverty that the elite wants. Because we have been brainwashed by racism in media for so long, it has affected the way we view people today and has created divisions in our society in the 21st century. The 21st Century has brought about many attempted changes in society. There is legislation against discrimination in its many forms. Affirmative action has been used as an attempt to ensure individuals are given equal opportunity for employment, housing, and other types of advancement. Television shows have changed format and characters to seek political correctness. Nevertheless, society cleverly and subtly maintains its separate views of the races. With this the racism in the institutions in our society such as the in the media or education, makes it extremely difficult for certain people to advance in life. There will always be those who will fight for change while others resist, seeking to maintain the status quo. But overall there can still be no improvement unless many individuals work together for equality.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Most are articles written by different intellectual scholars in the criminal justice field all weighing in on what they believe the theory of Ã¢â¬Å"DeterrenceÃ¢â¬ is and how it relates to the ability to deflect and or inhibit crime during war time, peace time and stately situations. In particular I found one article to be an astounding work done by a man named Stephen Quackenbush with an article titled General Deterrence and International Conflict: Testing Perfect Deterrence Theory (2006). Although this article deals with deterrence theory of international conflict it still involves the basic roots of deterrence. I would like to show that through Mr. QuackenbushÃ¢â¬â¢s work one can come very close to a Ã¢â¬Å"Perfect Theory of Deterrence Ã¢â¬Å" by simply following the logic of the article. Deterrence 3 When searching for the topic it was my goal to find the meaning of deterrence and or the application behind the theory. I wanted something with close ties to the relationship of the text we are using in the classroom. The text we are using VoldÃ¢â¬â¢s Theoretical Criminology, 6th ed (Bernard, Snipes, & Gerould, 2010). I found in the article what I needed to relate different aspects of the text to the fundamentals behind what S. Quackebush (2006) had theorized about the levels behind deterrence. Not only does his research provide information on when and how to implement deterrence it can use simple math to determine the victor in every situation based on fundamentals of push and shove and force on force comparisons. In order to understand what deterrence was I wanted to find a source to provide a little more input than data from the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, as we have learned from Cesare Bonesana (1738-1794) statement concerning the implementation of keeping punishments proportional to the seriousness of the crime so that the cost always exceeds the reward (Bernard, Snipes, & Gerould, pg. 14). This is all well and good to understand how to set its boundary of punishment to the crime but I needed a better understanding of how it worked and what other factors besides crime helped to determine severity and what types of deterrence we see in our world today. By looking into QuackenbushÃ¢â¬â¢s (2006) theory I can gain a better understanding of the levels of deterrence and the players in the game. By understanding it better myself and can readily adapt it better in my of life and have a better understanding of why and how it is used not only on the global level but on every street corner in America. I order to locate the information I was searching for I followed the link provided in module one under the paper one resource provided by the course administrator. After following the link to the Excelsior LibraryÃ¢â¬â¢s resource search page I entered deterrence into the search box and began to look for articles that appealed to me over those that were easier for lack of a better term. Deterrence 4 I did find an article prior to the one by Mr. Quackenbush (2006) but after careful review I found the course required the article to be from 2000 and up. My article was from the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s so that got quickly recycled and I found the article mentioned above. When I have used the library resource in the past I find it is always best to find your specific subject of study go to that portion of the library and search using specific terms within the requirements you have for the research to be done. In this case it was easy I had one word to describe my intent to the search box and in return it pulled up many documents. I knew that since mine needed to be a specific format Ã¢â¬Å"ArticleÃ¢â¬ I then eliminated all but the required information such as periodicals and journals. Of course a wide variety of useful and some not so useful articles, journals and periodicals popped up. I simply perused through them until I found a few that grabbed my attention. I would then open the journal and briefly read through it to see if it contained the content I wanted or was interested in. Once I found the writing that best fit the work I wanted to explore my time was done in the Excelsior Library. While looking through the many choices that were made available to me I quickly looked at content for information that one, intrigued me and two had some rational sense in which I could then understand and use. What is the point of using information that you have no Comprehension of? Once these guidelines were established I look at the list of references and crossed checked these and the original author through the internet to find any additional information that may have been useful to me. The trick to this as well is to find a resource that has the intent of the message being interpreted and received by the viewer. If I am to do a paper on deterrence what benefit would I gain from a paper on crime rates in Kalamazoo, MI? At this point relevance to the meaning of the research is a factor. Another key thing to look for in an article is what amount of evidence is backed up by fact and how much of it is based on opinion or hearsay? Deterrent 5 A good resource needs to be based on as much proven fact and be backed by additional works to allow for the best use of the material in which you are going to use for your paper. Anyone can find a story on their topic but is it a story or is there hard evidence to back it up? I believe my methods of evaluation are probably a bit more stringent than those described in the library resource. I tend to be a stickler for what I want to use for any form of writing in order to try to get my point across as best as possible. The library resources are abundant with useful information though. Do not think I am discrediting then because that would be far from the truth. As a new student when I first started my Undergraduates Degree I used all the resources available to me especially the library. The article I chose to introduce to compliment Chapter twoÃ¢â¬â¢s lesson on deterrence is an article called General Deterrence and International Conflict: Testing Perfect Deterrence Theory, by Stephen L. Quackenbush (2006). When I first began to read the article it intrigue my because it deals not just with the cause and effect of deterrence but the quantative measure of it as if it is and has always been a scientific fact of life. It begins by stating deterrence is the use of a threat (explicit or not) by one party in attempt to convince another party not to upset the status quo (Quackenbush, S. L. 2006). It breaks it down into two purposes which are direct and extended deterrence. One is immediate and used primarily as a means of prevention or attack on a defender, while the other is meant to deter a general population. Along with this are two types of situations that are created by deterrence. The first is immediate and is targeted toward a specific challenger and general which is all encompassing of a group (Quackenbush, S. L. 2006). Deterrent 6 Inside these purposes are different categories to describe different events of deterrence to include direct immediate deterrence, direct general deterrence, extended immediate deterrence and extended general deterrence (Quackenbush, S. L. 2006). These are considered different strategies based on your position. In this article the author chose to focus primarily on direct general deterrence to prove his theory of the Ã¢â¬Å"perfect deterrenceÃ¢â¬ . At many times Dr. Quackenbush (2006) speaks in term of deterrence being that of a game. I will describe the way that I understand his game based n the article as it delves deep into mathematical equations that do make sense but are a long way to describe it how I will. As discussed before there are and have to always be two sides when we speak of deterrence. In the case of the article they are known as Challenger and Defender. In this game there are choices to be made and depending on the choice each side makes will determine whether you are the defender or the challenger. Think of it if you will like a national game of chess depending on how you chose to play your piece will either make you the aggressor or leave you making defensive moves to get out of harmÃ¢â¬â¢s way. Earlier it was discussed that deterrence is simply used to bring one party back to the status quo or the normal. Being the defender or challenger and based on the decisions you make will put you into one of two places. You will either be the defender, come back to the status quo or you will retaliate (becoming the challenger) and move into conflict and vice versa. Based on this Dr. Quackenbush (2006) has established that no matter where we are even in peace times there will always be a direct general deterrence. The shift from this happens when one side moves their piece one way or another. The understanding of deterrence in this article is based on a state to state or nation to nation offensive and defensive. We typically are discussing criminal activities of general population during this course but I do have a way to show just how much it looks like the national scale of deterrence within our precincts and our cities. Deterrence 7 One of the ways it can be shown that Dr. QuackenbushÃ¢â¬â¢s (2006) Theory of the perfect deterrence being present in our text is to compare just a few similarities in which he based his work on. One of the first few terms that come to mind is deterrence decay and residual deterrence. If compared to the though t of a continual deterrence as suggested by Dr. Quackenbush then you can consider these the effects of a deterrent being put into place. This would happen in three stages the initial deterrent, the deterrent decay and what would be left would be the residual deterrence. By showing that there are different levels and or stages of deterrence at any given ime then we can validate the Theory of Perfect Deterrence as proposed by Dr. Quackenbush (2006). By knowing the challenger to defender relationship it can compare to local law enforcement against drugs, crime, gangs and the list goes on. At times the law enforcement agencies are the challenger and the criminals are the defender. Those roles do reverse and local authori ties have come under attack many times before. By understanding that there is always some type of ongoing deterrence whether perceived or intentional the challenger and or the defender will plan accordingly. The threat of going to jail for a crime is a constant deterrent for most. At times though there are those that weigh the benefit to the loss and chose to defy the deterrent sometimes they get away with it and sometimes they donÃ¢â¬â¢t. It is knowing that there is a consequence for your action that keeps most on the straight and narrow. A perceived deterrent would be a shining star in proof of constant deterrence theory. Based on past experiences people will build a perceived notion of punishment for an offense. The deterrent had been initiated long ago yet the residual effect of it remains.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Knowledge - Essay Example The question of the justification of beliefs also arises in the study of epistemology. The mainly applied theories that are trusted in epistemic justification include reliabilism, foundationalim and coherentism. Epistemology also looks at our perception to the world that we live in and the environment that surrounds us. Perception involves our senses and our attitudes towards what we see and interact with. The process of perception though complex helps us in understanding our environment and how we live in it better. Our interaction with the environment is so important as it determines how friendly we will be or how destructive we will be. This makes it an important field in the study of knowledge. Philosophical skepticism is the question that tries to answer the question whether we even know anything. This paper will address the questions that arise in epistemology and compare the description of the same from different philosophers. The paper is aimed at looking critically at the to pic and come up with the best explanation of the theory of knowledge as it pertains to epistemology. Plato projected the tripartite theory of knowledge which I support in what one should have in order to possess knowledge. In this theory knowledge is analysed and brought out as a justified true belief. The theory proposes that for a person to believe in a certain thing then you must have justified it\. In the justification you end up knowing it and hence the theory holds water. According to Plato, the first condition one should have to have knowledge is belief. Believing in a certain thing is a process that is cultured by excellent, emotional free reasoning and weighing of situations. When you believe in a thing then you know it due to the justification you did regarding the issue. Truth is the second condition to uphold knowledge. Even if a belief is sincere and well justified, if it is not true then it cannot be
Thursday, September 26, 2019
MODERN FRENCH THINKERS-POLITICAL SCIENCE PHILOSOPHY - Essay Example His political science thus harnesses the new natural science of the Enlightenment to address despotism, which he deems mankinds fundamental problem in older and newer times and in every land. One of his novel means for overcoming this enduring obstacle to human civilization and liberty, thus providing for mankinds needs and wants in a humane way, is a powerful but disguised judiciary which can change both the manner and structure of political life for any people or government. The best, most humane kind of government will be one most imbued, though still imperceptibly, by a judges concern with due process and protecting individual security. Throughout this examination of MontesquieuÃ¢â¬â¢s judging power recourse will be had to one of the Ã¢â¬Å"principlesÃ¢â¬ of his work - principles which, he claims, explain Ã¢â¬Å"the histories of all nationsÃ¢â¬ (Preface, 229, xliii). This is moderation, by which he means a balance, or equilibrium, which avoids extremes, and it is the fundamental principle of Montesquieus new political science. One of its particular forms is a doctrine of constitutionalism for which he is justly famous, since in its application to human beings and politics Montesquieus moderation takes the form of separation of powers. This principle of balance or equilibrium deeply informs his noted study of the constitution of England: Ã¢â¬Å"it is an everlasting experience that any man who has power is led to abuse it; he continues until he finds limits Ã¢â¬ ¦ So that one cannot abuse power, it is necessary that, by the disposition of things, power check power" (XI.4, 395, 155). Montesquieus more general and fundamental formulation of the principle of moderation, however, is the understanding of esprit (spirit) which informs the works title, namely a Newtonian equilibrium achieved in the relations between bodies in motion (inanimate and animate). This is clearly evident in Montesquieus notion of the Ã¢â¬Å"principle of each [type of] government:" the right "relation between the
Will show in the requirement - Essay Example rampant and unpredictable and development of the human resource capital by the higher education institutions is equally challenging (Brewer& Brewer, 2010). The interrelationship of knowledge management (KM), Human Resources Management (HRM) and Higher Education (HE) is that, the challenges and newly developing needs in HRM and Knowledge Management provides Higher Education with an opportunity to understand the changing global business arena, and thus establish programs that seek to suit and solve these challenges. On the other hand, the Knowledge Management and HRM challenges will enable Higher Education to measure the effectiveness of its learning programs. The field of knowledge management has gained popularity both in business and human resource management, considering that it is a new avenue that is allowing organizations to sort out issues of information congestion and overload, without the necessity of an individual being a computer expert (Brewer& Brewer, 2010). Nevertheless, while knowledge management is a vital aspect that enhances the competitiveness of the Human Resource function within an organization, it must be supported by relevant HRM policies, to ensure that the generation, development and sharing of the knowledge happens smoothly. Similarly, if Higher education has to be effective, it must integrate the Knowledge Management and the Human Resource Management challenges that organizations are experiencing, so the human capital developed can be competent in addressing these challenges (Brewer& Brewer, 2010). In this regard therefore, the three concepts of Knowledge Management, Human Resource Management and Higher Educatio n must work together in sync, to solve the developing challenges in the global business arena. The information from this article has high applicability for both higher education business institutions and global organizations. The institutions of higher learning will use the information in the article for gaining insights into the
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Deontological Ethics - Case Study Example The second ethical problem is how the external auditor would perform his function in the conduct of external audit.. Deontological framework takes a normative ethical position that judges the morality of action based on latterÃ¢â¬â¢s conformity to rules or rules. It is sometimes called duty-based ethics or rule-based ethics because a person is bound to ones duty (Hartman, 2004). It is differentiated with consequentialism where the rights are determined by the consequences. The primacy or importance of the rules is clear in deontological. The validity the rules would have to relate them with what is universal and rational man ought to do under the circumstances. Thus, Kant ethics which will be used in this is paper since it is deemed to under this type of ethics because of the principle of universalism (Weiss, 2008). This should be deemed accomplished as found in section 2.1. The first issue is on the interpretation of accounting rules in the preparation of the financial statements. Case facts provide in the preparation of its financial statements, that WorldCom used a liberal interpretation of accounting rules. Interpretation could of course be liberal, strict or just be neural enough to balance the two extremes. Since the company has a purpose in having a liberal interpretation which is make it appear that its profits were increasing, the company must have reason for doing so. It has done the same by writing down in one quarter earnings the cost of company expenses expected in the future so that is it would have bigger losses in the current quarter but smaller ones in the future quarters (Moberg, 2010). The idea was to show trend of constant growth in the profit of the company as a sign of growing or sustainable company. In other instance involving its acquisition of MCI, WorldCom had the accounting opportunity to reduce the book value of some MCI
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Opinion - Research Paper Example Everyone seems to care for the prolongation of the life of a beloved one, no matter the extent of socioeconomic demand thereon. For instance, psychological and medical facts supporting the possibility of terminally ill persons making a dramatic comeback from their conditions within the framework of support and care counter the propensity to implement the rights to be aided to end life. The family bond is so strong that the contemplation of assisting aiding someone to end their life is usually not commonly adopted. The patientÃ¢â¬â¢s rights to die may be abused for a number of reasons, creating a deliberate move to eliminate persons who need care and probably make a comeback in their health. The case of reported Dutch euthanasia data illustrates the magnitude of risks that a society may have to contend with, if the procedures of aided death fail to observe humane treatment of human dignity. Families must take a more central role in supplementing the national healthcare system in providing care to the aged, since the overstretched system will increasingly find it difficult to cover everyone. Under such conditions, the risks of euthanasia to the sociocultural fabric will continue to loom in the American society (Pevtzow, 2011). Under the conditions of a growing population of aged persons with high dependence of care to survive, healthcare systems find the burden of balancing service delivery to productive population unbearable. The astronomical costs involved in the care-intensive service to the very old always leads to debates on whether elimination of the persons would make healthcare systems sustainable for the populations. However, as illustrated above, stronger social factors tend to keep the life of the aged closer to the family structure than elimination of their life at will. Abuse of the right to die for the terminally ill, most of which are the aged may be supported by cold family members
Monday, September 23, 2019
Marketing Plan for M&S Food Retails Sector - Assignment Example At present, it is unclear whether Marks and Spencer has an established market. Also, it is evident that the products of the firm are still far from establishing a permanent image in the minds of the consumers. It is important to segment the market and decide a particular group that will serve as the target market. Moreover, the marketing team needs to reconcile the attributes of products perceived to be ideal by the consumers and the attributes of the products as developed by the company. The other marketing initiatives necessitate the identification of the price, promotion, product, and place. Mixing these aspects will improve the marketing strategies of the company. It is imperative that Marks and Spencer needs to take advantage of its strengths and limit the negative effects of its weaknesses. Marketing ideas have to be done using creativity with the inclination to use the fundamental tools and concepts. The growth in the UK food retail industry has been unprecedented. Amidst the geographical limitations, UK houses several food retail firms with global distinction. Excluded from this group are the different food retail companies based from the US and the neighbouring European countries. According to the British Retail Consortium (2001), the impact of the food retail industry in the overall economy of UK has been gaining prominence. The figures suggest that the industry has been employing 1.2 million individuals. This translates to more than 5% of the total workforce in UK. Also, the industry is consisted of approximately 60,000 enterprises. Overall, the industry has contributed about 10% of the Gross Domestic Product. Aside from these actual results, the industry continues to flourish with the establishment of policies geared toward competition and favourable market conditions. The sophisticated UK retail market shows variations to styles in relation to the development of products. Despite the failures of some innovations, firms have been optimistic in introducing new products in the market. In particular, food retailers have cited their strengths in marketing as the source of competitiveness. Indeed, the marketing efforts observed in most food retail companies have provided positive outcomes. In particular, firms have become highly focused on the consumers instead of satisfying the corporate goals. The marketing strategies promoted by the firms have become the determinant of success. It is likely that food retail companies with superior marketing dynamics will emerge as the top player in the industry. In UK, the developments in food production have greatly affected food retailers. Specifically, the changing preference of consumers has defined the direction taken by food retail companies. Recent trends suggest that products that are fruit flavoured will become highly popular in UK. Likewise, UK consumers will be highly receptive to food products with distinct yet uncommon combination of flavours. Moreover, functional foods will be highly regarded in the market as well as food that contain low carbohydrates. Basically, UK consumers have become more aware of their food intake because of the hazards attributed to such activity. Health issues and concerns are primary drivers that influence consumers in purchasing certain food products. In the beverage sector, beer manufacturers will continue to challenge the wine
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Sexual assaults Essay From a Freudian point of view the rape and sexual assaults discussed in this example, stemmed from the impulses from his id which were demanding sexual gratification. Freud may have contended that Tysons id had won control of the available psychic energy coursing through his body, which neither the ego nor the superego could stop or negotiate. This sexual energy and desire from the id arguably overpowered Tysons mind and his focus was to obtain sexual satisfaction. From this perspective other illustrations of Tysons id taking control of his psychic energy are evident when considering his behaviour during his youth. Hoffer, (1998) has noted that he habitually stole from people who had something he wanted, and assaulted others who tried to stop him. In these instances the demands Tysons id forced him to take whatever he wanted, even if it was to the detriment of others. However, it is ironic to note that these impulses from his id which forced him into engaging in this type of behaviour to satisfy its demands were the very same impulses that gained him respect, fame and fortune inside the boxing ring. Arguably, his ids desire to retain the title and maintain the status and respect he now had, facilitated him to achieving a high position in life. Paradoxically this argument lends a little more credence to Horneys theory of inner safety. Arguably, Tyson was indeed being driven by demands from his id in a Freudian sense, but these demands were bound now by the rules and regulations set out by the boxing authorities and this framework provided him with a sense of safety. Boxing protocol ensured that Tysons safety was not under threat and this enabled him to perform his aggression in a controlled, supervised and acceptable manner. As stated earlier Tyson was a victim of bullying. However it was also noted that he reached the stage where he himself became the bully. Younger weaker children were the first targets Tyson chose to assault, but he quickly progressed to older children when he found he could beat them easily. His fighting ability, which was swift and vicious, resulted in him gaining respect throughout the neighbourhood and becoming an accepted member of the gangs. It could be argued from both of the points of view in this discussion that Tyson was using defence mechanisms in order to abate his anxiety. From a Freudian perspective the bullies who taunted Tyson made him feel inferior causing him biological anxiety. The bullying that he suffered resulted in his ego feeling threatened and losing its balance of power, and in order to regain this balance, his defensive reaction was to eliminate the source of the threat. This example of Tyson targeting younger weaker children is a good illustration of Freuds defence mechanism of displacement. Corey, (2001 p72) notes that one way for a person to cope with anxiety is discharge impulses from a threatening object to a safer target. However, Horneys description of the defence mechanism Tyson used here would be slightly different. From this point of view it would be described as compulsive aggression. Accordingly, people who display this type of aggression are making an effort to hide any sign of weakness or fear by moving against people. The compulsive needs of this type of individual according to Horneys theory, is such that they have a need to dominate and control others. ( Fadiman Frager, 1994 p141) It could be argued here that every time Tyson beat a child who taunted him he regained his feeling of safety. Subsequently, each time Tyson felt the need to regain this feeling he repeated the actions. A further reinforcement Tyson may have found from these actions was the added bonus of gaining respect from his peers and becoming an accepted member of his immediate surroundings. Arguably this exact pattern of events brought him success, fame and fortune inside the boxing ring. This huge money earning period of Tysons life enabled him to enjoy a lavish lifestyle. It was noted by (Hoffer, 1998) that Tyson had a passion for collecting expensive possessions. He owned Siberian tigers, cars, fur coats and mansions. From a Freudian point of view Tyson could be said to be fixated in his Anal stage of psychosexual development. This stage of development according to Freuds theory happens between the ages of one and three. An important aspect of this stage is the toilet training of a child. A child learns during this time to control his sphincter and bladder and could find that he is chastised for mistakes or praised for conforming to his parents wishes. The child may pass a bowel movement and feel immensely proud of it he may then seek praise from his parent but feel dejection when he did not receive it. This situation may render the child with feelings of deflation and rejection. Fixation in this stage according to (Corey, 2001) can then occur. Corey, goes on to note that this can manifest in later life as a need to collect possessions for which one can feel proud so that the earlier feelings of deflation and rejection do not reoccur. Arguably though, this aspect of Freuds theory would be difficult to support with empirical evidence. Most people would be unable to recall with any degree of accuracy the toilet training methods employed by their parents. Horneys theory of cultural and environmental factors surrounding a persons childhood having a critical effect on their behaviour in adulthood would be easier to provide evidence for.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Strategic Decision Making Case Study: Zara Introduction ZARA is the brand of the Spanish retail group, INDITEX SA. Its one of the well known performers in a retail market in recent years its stores can now be found in the most important shopping districts of more than 400 cities in Europe, the Americas, Asia and Africa. With year-on-year sales increasing at around 25% over the last 5 years, it has become one of the worlds fastest growing retailers (Lopez, 2009). Task 2 Strategic decision A strategic decision is what is thought to be a long-term investment and which is helpful in changing the direction of business undergoing in any organization. Such a decision can be a lot risky as the market changes very rapidly but if it turns out to be successful it give a competitive advantage over its competitors. The decision will be made by the top level management in a company and the shareholders will be consulted for that (Harris,ÃâÃ 1998). Example For taking an example of a strategic decision we can take a look at their working with a design driven strategy, they produce about 11000 styles per year which means that they produce about 1000 new styles every month which is managed by a team consist of experts in design and development fields of over 200 people. This means that every member of the team on average is producing around 60 styles a year. As a result of that in zara stores a customer can always find a customer can always find new and latest products. This comes out to be a successful strategic decision in order to gain the competitive edge and higher profits in the market (Machuca, 2005). Tactical decision The second type of decision is called tactical decision making. Such a decision may be made by a group of managers but the shareholders are not involved in it as it is a medium term decision and have a lesser effect then a strategic decision. The result of such a decision can be seen within a period of less than a year or so and it has no contribution in changing the direction of the business. (McKinne) Example An example of such a decision is Zaras unique approach to advertising and marketing. It an additional factor within their business model which adds a lot to their success. They spend 0.3% of total revenues on advertising and marketing. This percentage is very less as compared to the competitors in their markets as on average companies like GAP and HM spend about 3-4 % of their total revenue for the similar expense this shows that Zara is successfully maintain a cost advantage to their competitors in marketing activities. For completing with its peers successfully Zara uses different useful locations, store layouts and the life cycle of its products as an effective marketing tool. they open their stores in primes markets to get the maximum visibility. And as mentioned earlier their product are in stores for a very small period of time which provokes the customer to visit time and again and make a rapid decision about purchasing as they might not get that product again when they visit the store even next day. Zara also spend heavily to the layout of their stores each store is remolded after every five years to keep up with the current trends (Gallaugher, 2008) Operational decisions Operational decisions are those which are made on regular basis the effects of such decisions are often minimal and usually do not last for more than a week of so these decisions are mostly done by staff and do not require much of an attention by the top level management (Harris, 1998). Example The example of such a decisions at Zara is its Centralized Logistics and Distribution they have maintain a control and have optimized their supply chain very effectively at many different levels. Within a week there are two orders or prescribes specific days and hours with usually prepared overnight shipments in La Coruna. (Felipe et al., 2010) There are specific times for trucks to leave and shipments to arrive at stores, the garments are pre-hung, already labeled and priced even those which are set by air.ÃâÃ As a result of this clearly defined rhythm, not on the supply chain works smoothly but also the customers know the time and days to visit the stores to get the fresh arrivals and new designs. It is very interesting to know that where in industry a standard time of 6 months has to get the product from sketch to store Zara does this in a remarkable short time of just 2 weeks (Vitzthum, 2001) Task 3:Ã Information needed for decision making Following is the explanation of the type of information required for strategic and tactical decision making. Human intelligence such as information from store managers and market research and information technology such as PDA devices are being used in order to form a hybrid model for flow of information from where houses to stores. Manager present at Zara stores use hand handheld device to send the standardized information about the feedback by customers and ordering needs directly to in house designers. This not only support and helps in making strategic decisions along with the rapidly changing trends and customers demand but also make the company be aware about the merchandise which is less desirable. The competitors of Zara completely rely on information technology which the unique approach being used by Zara makes them manage their inventories well helps them create a link between demand and supply and also helps in controls the problems occurring due to obsolete merchandise. For supporting the operational decisions Information from the distribution centers and from the production facilities, gives a better view to the manager of a certain store about the availability of garments at the stores this also helps in adjusting their orders and passing on information needed by the customer. (123HelpMe.com, 2010) Task 4:Ã Competitors intelligence The competitive intelligence is a process of monitoring the activities of rivals in market. It helps to know about competitors plans and review the own strategies for taking successful decisions (Arik, 2010). Main competitors of Zara are HM and Gap. HM OPENS its distribution centers in the region it has its stores in order to cut down the lead time and transportation cost. It also heavily investing in advertisement which helps them cater large market size and capture attention of a lot of customers worldwide. Another risk which is reported to the Inditex group it works by reinvesting all its profits in opening new stores HM is Sweden based retailer that spent heavily in advertising and is a close competitor of Zara. HM opens its distribution center in the country of its operations so as to cut down on lead time and transportation cost. (Pankaj and Jose, 2006) The process which id adopted by Zara of obtaining the market information is very different from its competitors. Many of them majorly rely on small elite design teams that plan all the needs of the business. Their stores have a very little autonomy in deciding which products they should out in display or which to go for sale because the quantities and planned and shipped according to the forecasts. Where the speed of Zara in product development is far better than anyone in the market (123HelpMe.com, 2010). When it comes to Strategic Partnerships and Cost of Production Most of Zaras competitors have 100% outsourcing to cheap Asian countries. Zara does not use Asian outsourcing unlike its competitors such as Gap, Benetton, and HM and 80% of Zaras materials are manufactured in Europe with 50% made in Zara controlled facilities in the Galicia region of Spain . The cost of production in Spain is 17-20% more expensive than Asia this gives a cost advantage to it competitors in regard to labor and expands their market worldwide (123HelpMe.com, 2010). The information and communication technologies being used by the competitors of Zara are quite different the cost spent by Zara in this regard is less than 0.5% of its total revenue and the it employees account for about 0.5% of Zaras total workforce. And if we take a look at its competitors they spend on average 2% of their total revenue on it expenditures and have 2.5% of their total workforce devoted to it. Which certainly makes their working far better in these areas? This is the global age and these gimmicks are demand of the time so Zara should pay some more attention to it both financially and strategically (123HelpMe.com, 2010). Task 5:Ã Importance of Business-To-Business for Zara Business to business commerce is a form of E-commerce involving business to business transactions, servicing customers, working with other businesses and the exchanging of products or services. B2B opens up a global market at little cost, reduces the costs of sales and promotions and can increase demand. This term specifically defines the electronic collaboration among different enterprisers. The B2B is a lot more important for Zara to promote its business activities at a bigger level and to cater a bigger market. It makes sure the world about the about the presence of variety of products available in its stores. Zara is even new to e-commerce as it launched it website in 2009 (Alisa, 2009). As compared to its competitors Zara is offering cheaper rates and a good quality product that is why many dealers would want to make a purchase to save their expenditure on high prices designers clothes of same quality. This will also give the benefit of saving time and money because after taking the order the product may be delivered to the door step of the customer. And other e-commerce retailers who are involved with fashion will be looking carefully to what Zaras online store can bring to online shoppers. The pace of which your ordinary high street stores are moving online and developing e-commerce solutions is set to lead to a more intensified competition for online sales, and more focused e-commerce marketing strategies. (DeltaQuest, 2010) Canada and China: Cybercrime and Cryptocurrency Canada and China: Cybercrime and Cryptocurrency Bitcoin, Cyber-crime, Cryptocurrency, Canada, China. Cyber-crime is a byproduct of the information age and is growing very fast worldwide (FBI, 2017). As technology has advanced so have the criminals methods to exploit the internet. Cyber-crime can be described as the use of a computer, a network or other electronic device to facilitate a crime, Interpol makes a distinction between two types of cyber-crime (INTERPOL, 2017): Advanced cyber-crime attacks on computer software or hardware; Cyber-enabled crime financial crimes, crimes against children and terrorism are more prevalent since the introduction of the internet. These types of crime in the past would have been likely to be conducted by small groups or even individuals, but new trends according to Interpol show organized criminal gangs worldwide have embraced technology to further their profits be it from illegal gambling, sale of fake goods, theft, fraud etc. Since 2009 the criminals now have a new virtual currency also labelled as a cryptocurrency called Bitcoin which is used by many to conduct transactions on what has become known as the dark web. The dark web can only be accessed through encryption software and this area of the internet is largely un-policed and users can remain anonymous. The anonymity is an ideal scenario for the criminal to work in. This paper will discuss firstly the give a brief overview of cyber-crime and the origins of bitcoin in more detail. Secondly how this electronic currency technology is being used for legal and illegal purposes. And lastly how governments around the globe are trying to regulate this electronic currency, with a major focus on the Canadian government and Bill C-31. Criminality is nothing new it has been part of lives for centuries, crime as such has not changed over the years only the tools used to carry them out have developed. Criminals have learned to use technology to hide themselves in the shadows and use technology to further profit. The biggest technological advancement in the last thirty years has been the internet. The internet has revolutionized our lives in so many ways from ease of communications, e-commerce to the large wealth of knowledge on line. Cyber-crime comes in many forms but it is primarily aimed at computers, computer infrastructure and other connected devices. With the large spread of the internet and smartphones, now nearly 3.2 billion people on the planet have access to the internet (ITU, 2015). It increases the pool of people that criminals have access to. When this is compared to decades ago when computers were only used by government agencies, research and financial institutes, crime in this area was limited to those who had the expertise and access to these devices (Clough, 2015). Now a small group can conduct crimes on a global scale without the restrictions of physical location to perform the crime. Bitcoin is an electronic virtual currency that allows users to conduct transactions between themselves (peer to peer) over an electronic network without the need for a third party namely a financial institution (Nakamoto 2008). Bitcoin was released in January 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto which there is little known about as this was an alias used by the inventor (Powers 2014). The Bitcoin software is open source and in order to use the currency a user must obtain a wallet, there are two common types of wallets. Firstly the software wallet and the secondly the mobile wallet (Bitcoin 2017). The software wallet is mostly stored on a users hard drive, with the mobile wallet being stored on mobile devices such as android phones, IOS phones and tablets, giving the user the flexibility of have a currency attached to a mobile device. These wallets contain both a public and private key, the public key is what a user will share with other Bitcoin users in order to have them send bitcoins over the internet, whereas the private key is used by the owner of the bitcoins to make payments from the wallet (Miller 2015). The back bone of this cryptocurrency is the public ledger called the blockchain, this ledger records who owns what bitcoins and records transactions that take place. No one controls or owns the blockchain its all in the public domain. Transactions on the blockchain cant be reversed, the blockchain is only written too and are confirmed by the peer to peer network. Nakamoto has placed a limit of just under 21 million bitcoins, once that limit is reached, no more bitcoins can be made. Bitcoin is viewed as being the electronic equivalent of cash, as no financial institutes are involved no personal information is required when creating a personal wallet or purchasing Bitcoins. This anonymity has drawn scrutiny from some sectors to Bitcoin because some criminals have adopted the currency instead of conducting business in more traditional financial ways (Miller 2015). Just like any currency, Bitcoin can be used to purchase many of the everyday things in life the same way that we use traditional cash or credit cards. You can transfer Bitcoin to relatives, donate to charity, and this was what Bitcoin was created for to be a replacement for current systems. The first Bitcoin ATM was opened in Vancouver, Canada in 2013. In its first week of operation, the ATM performed over 10,000 independent transactions with a third of users being first time Bitcoin buyers (Wagner 2013). Across the world, entire city areas are accepting this cryptocurrency Bitcoin as payment for a range of goods and services. In the Germany City of Berlin, the borough of Kreuzberg, has the highest number of businesses accepting Bitcoin on the planet. This is expanding across the globe because every day more and more businesses are authorizing Bitcoin as a means of payment (Small 2015). Kirkpatrick (2017) refers to an interview with David Decary-Hetu, an adjunct professor of criminology at the University of Montreal, There are many helpful and legal reasons for having bitcoin, Decary-Hetu says, noting that large established companies such as Dell Computer, Expedia, Microsoft, and PayPal, each accept bitcoin, and are clearly not dealing in illegal goods. Small (2015) stated the total market value of the Bitcoin currency is currently estimated at slightly below $7.6 billion. The main argument for the regulation of virtual currencies and Bitcoin is that because of the anonymity offered to the buyer of such currencies, criminals have advantage over law makers and law enforcement. This anonymity helps obscure the identities of those purchasing drugs, money laundering, illegal paraphernalia and terrorist financing with the use of Bitcoin. Kirkpatrick (2017) again in his interview with Decary-Hetu says There is no way to tie your identity to your online bitcoin wallet address, if you do it properly, noting that when users try to convert cryptocurrencies to traditional money they may lose that anonymity. Thats where sloppy people are going to get arrested. China In China, the government banned Bitcoin in December 2013. The Peoples Bank of China does not give Bitcoin any legal status, refuses to recognize it as a currency, and has misgivings about Bitcoin as a central authority does not regulate it (Ponsford 2015). This was not always the case as in May 2013, the Chinese government unofficially gave its blessing to the currency when the government sponsored a documentary that was shown on state television to inform the public about Bitcoin (Small 2015). Because of the interest that came from the documentary, a surge of Chinese clients downloaded Bitcoin software, more than any other country for the last seven months of 2013. Before the ban, China accounted for the most Bitcoin exchanges and as a result Bitcoins value plummeted nearly twenty percent in a single day after the announcement (Small 2015). Canada In Canada, the government in 2014 stated that Bitcoin was not legal tender. The government however did state that it was a payment system (George-Cosh 2014) and as such should be taxed as a commodity when Bitcoin is exchanged for Canadian currency. Canada was the first jurisdiction in the world to pass concrete legislative measures to deal with Bitcoin and other virtual currencies. Bill C-31 was passed into law in June 2014, which made reporting requirements on the use of virtual currencies like Bitcoin. These measures are similar in nature to regulations on other financial transactions in the country. Bill C-31 made it law that Bitcoin be regulated as a money services business, requiring users to register with the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC). These Bitcoin regulations would apply to both domestic and international Bitcoin operators (Ponsford 2015). The summary of Bill C-31 stated (in part): Division 19 of Part 6 amends the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act to, among other things, enhance the client identification, record keeping and registration requirements for financial institutions and intermediaries, refer to online casinos, and extend the application of the Act to persons and entities that deal in virtual currencies and foreign money services businesses [emphasis added]. Legislation that specifically altered the definition of money services business stated: (4) If subsection 256(2) comes into force, then on the latter of January 1, 2015 and the day on which that subsection comes into force, money services business means an entity (a)(iv) dealing in virtual currencies, as defined by regulation Other legislative provisions incorporated virtual currency language, including foreign businesses directing services at a Canadian person or entity. This legislation has had effects on Bitcoin use in Canada, because firstly it regulates virtual currency as a money service business; secondly imposes registration with FINTRAC to combat money laundering and terrorist financing; thirdly extends to both users inside and outside of the jurisdiction, or services within Canada; fourthly prevents banks from dealing with unregistered users (Ponsford 2015). References bitcoin.org (2017). Available: https://bitcoin.org/en/choose-your-wallet. Last accessed 18/03/2017. Calumn Jeffrey and Tobias Feakin. (2015). Ungerground web. ASPI Special Report. March 2015. Daniel Miller. (2015). Bitcoin explained: the digital currency making millionaires. Available: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-12-02/bitcoins-the-digital-currency-explained/5119034. Last accessed 19/03/2017. David George-Cosh. (2014). Canada Says Bitcoin Isnt Legal Tender. Available: http://blogs.wsj.com/canadarealtime/2014/01/16/canada-says-bitcoin-isnt-legal-tender/. Last accessed 12/03/2017. Dr. Mike McGuire (University of Surrey) and Samantha Dowling (Home Office Science). (2013). Cyber-dependent crimes. Cyber crime: A review of the evidence. p4-p5. FBI. (unknown). What we Investigate. Available: https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/cyber. Last accessed 16/02/2017. Jeffery Powers. (2014). January 3, 2009: Bitcoin Introduced, 1983: Computer Machine of the Year. Available: http://dayintechhistory.com/dith/january-3-2009-bitcoin-introduced-1983-computer-machine-year/. Last accessed 19/03/2017. Jonathan Clough (2015). Principles of Cybercrime. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p6. Keith Kirkpatrick. (2017). Financing the Dark Web . Communications of the ACM. 60 (3), p21-p22. International cyber security protection alliance. (2012). Detailed Findings. Impact of cyber crime on businesses in Canada. ICSPA (4),p3, p16. INTERPOL. (2017). Cybercrime. Available: https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime. Last accessed 18/02/2017. International Telecommunication Union. (2015). ICT revolution and remaining gaps. ICT Facts and Figures 2015, p1. Kurt Wagner. (2013). Worlds First Bitcoin ATM Opens In Vancouver, Canada. Available: http://mashable.com/2013/10/30/bitcoin-atm-2/#HUU2o4zadsq7. Last accessed 18/03/2017. Matthew P. Ponsford . (2015). A Comparative Analysis of Bitcoin and Other Decentralised Virtual Currencies: Legal Regulation in the Peoples Republic of China, Canada, and the United States . Hong Kong Journal of Legal Studies Volume 9 (2015) . p51-p70. Satoshi Nakamoto. (2008). Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. Stephen Small. (2015). BITCOIN: THE NAPSTER OF CURRENCY. HOUSTON JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW. 37 (2), p585-p640.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Blades of Glory, directed by Josh Gordon and Will Speck, is a hilarious comedy that turns figure skating into one big joke. This movie was so over-the-top, it was over over-the-top, but it kept the whole theater laughing throughout the entire movie, which is exactly what it was made to do. The movieÃ¢â¬â¢s plot is not very intricate, but it really doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about 2 MenÃ¢â¬â¢s Singles Figure Skaters that are the complete opposites of each other. Chazz Michael Michaels (Will Ferrell) is the notorious bad boy in figure skating, heÃ¢â¬â¢s very sexual and all the ladies swoon over him. Jimmy MacElroy (Jon Heder) is the good boy that pays attention to technical detail and precision. These two skaters compete against each other and end up getting a tie score for first place and the gold medal. Then, while on the podium, they start to bicker, and it leads to a brawl between the two of them. Because of that, they end up getting banned from MenÃ¢â¬â¢s Singles for the rest of their lives. The two of them find new, separate jobs, and after a while JimmyÃ¢â¬â¢s stalker, Hector (Nick Swardsdon), tells...
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Ã Ã In FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Great Gatsby, the reader discovers multiple interpretations of utopia. Each character is longing for one particular paradise. Only one character actually reaches utopia, and the arrival is a mixed blessing at best. The concept of paradise in The Great Gatsby is Ã¢â¬Å"a shifting, evanescent illusion of happiness, joy, love, and perfection, a mirage that leads each character to reach deeper, look harder, strive fartherÃ¢â¬ (Lehan, 57). All the while, time pulls each individual farther from the moment he seeks. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There is Myrtle Wilson's gaudy, flashy hotel paradise in which she can pretend that she is glamorous, elite, wanted and loved. She clings fiercely enough to this threadbare dream to brave the ire of Tom Buchanan by voicing her jealous terror that he will return to his wife. There is a desperation to her full, vivacious style of living, she wants so much to escape the grey, dead land of the Valley of Ashes that she colors her life with any brightness she can find, be it broken glass or diamonds. Nick describes land she finds herself in as a wasteland, a desert, saying "this is the Valley of Ashes -- a fantastic farm where ashes grow like wheat into ridges and hills and grotesque gardens, where ashes take the forms of houses and chimneys and rising smoke and finally, with a transcendent effort, of men who move dimly and already crumbling through the powdery air" (Fitzgerald, 27). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is from this that Myrtle is trying to escape, this life-in-death valley that epitomizes the underbelly of New York's glitter and lights and finery, and this that she is dragged back to by the dawning jealous rage of a normally unassuming husband. To run away from the grey and the death, the colo... ...any falls from grace, Nick alone resurfaces, burdened by his understanding of the entirety of the tragedy. Ã Works Cited and Consulted: Claridge, Henry, ed. F. Scott Fitzgerald: Critical Assessments. 4 vols. Robertsbridge, UK: Helm, 1992. Donaldson, Scott, ed. Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby." Boston: G. K. Hall, 1984. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. Ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. Toronto: Simon & Schuster Inc, 1995. Lehan, Richard D. F. "The Great Gatsby": The Limits of Wonder.Ã Boston: Twayne, 1990. Rowe, Joyce A. Ã¢â¬Å"Delusions of American Idealism.Ã¢â¬ In Readings on The Great Gatsby. edited by Katie de Koster. San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press. 1998. 87-95. Trilling, Lionel. "F. Scott Fitzgerald." Critical Essays on Scott Fitzgerald's "Great Gatsby." Ed. Scott Donaldson. Boston: Hall, 1984. 13-20.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Abstract Women empowerment is much talked about an issue by academicians, political thinkers and social scientists as regards to concepts like gender equality, financial independence, social inclusion, power etc. However there is a dire need of conceptual clarity of the term empowerment. This can be done by delineating it with the above overlapping concepts and suggesting inclusive approach towards enabling women themselves to critically review their own situation and participate in creating and shaping the society as agents of change themselves. Women themselves need to define the term empowerment which cannot be defined in terms of specific activities or end results because it involves a process whereby women can freely analyze, develop and voice their needs and interests, without them being pre-defined, or imposed from above. Masculinity Equality and Women?s Empowerment: There could be statistical evidence indicating improvements in indicators of gender equality, but unless the intervening process involved women as agents of that change, one cannot term it as empowerment. Gender equality or equity indicates the degree of equivalence in life outcomes for women and men, recognizing their different needs and interests and requiring a redistribution of power and resources. The women needs to build the conceptual framework of power for her and only then the concept of women empowerment and equality would hold relevance. This paper conceptualizes the issues of women empowerment through making her an agent of change for her own equivalence and studying the various domains where empowerment can be applied and discussed. 1. Economic participation 2. Economic opportunity 3. Political empowerment 4. Educational attainment .. ...olitical participation, and with relatively equal educational and economic opportunity and participation. Yet, as this study indicates, other countries show wide variation, lagging far behind in particular areas, some across all five dimensions. Aside from this general conclusion, and broad country comparisons, the data we have presented here shed light on the disparities within countries, in some cases either confirming formation gathered in other ways, or, in others, countering prevailing assumptions. By identifying and quantifying the gender gap, we hope to provide policy-makers with a tool offering direction and focus for the work of significantly Improving the economic, political and social potential of all their citizens.In addition, we hope that this work provides the impetus for policy-makers to strengthen their commitment to the idea of women?s empowerment. Supporting Women's Empowerment Essay -- essays research papers Abstract Women empowerment is much talked about an issue by academicians, political thinkers and social scientists as regards to concepts like gender equality, financial independence, social inclusion, power etc. However there is a dire need of conceptual clarity of the term empowerment. This can be done by delineating it with the above overlapping concepts and suggesting inclusive approach towards enabling women themselves to critically review their own situation and participate in creating and shaping the society as agents of change themselves. Women themselves need to define the term empowerment which cannot be defined in terms of specific activities or end results because it involves a process whereby women can freely analyze, develop and voice their needs and interests, without them being pre-defined, or imposed from above. Masculinity Equality and Women?s Empowerment: There could be statistical evidence indicating improvements in indicators of gender equality, but unless the intervening process involved women as agents of that change, one cannot term it as empowerment. Gender equality or equity indicates the degree of equivalence in life outcomes for women and men, recognizing their different needs and interests and requiring a redistribution of power and resources. The women needs to build the conceptual framework of power for her and only then the concept of women empowerment and equality would hold relevance. This paper conceptualizes the issues of women empowerment through making her an agent of change for her own equivalence and studying the various domains where empowerment can be applied and discussed. 1. Economic participation 2. Economic opportunity 3. Political empowerment 4. Educational attainment .. ...olitical participation, and with relatively equal educational and economic opportunity and participation. Yet, as this study indicates, other countries show wide variation, lagging far behind in particular areas, some across all five dimensions. Aside from this general conclusion, and broad country comparisons, the data we have presented here shed light on the disparities within countries, in some cases either confirming formation gathered in other ways, or, in others, countering prevailing assumptions. By identifying and quantifying the gender gap, we hope to provide policy-makers with a tool offering direction and focus for the work of significantly Improving the economic, political and social potential of all their citizens.In addition, we hope that this work provides the impetus for policy-makers to strengthen their commitment to the idea of women?s empowerment.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The fluidity and ambiguity with which Viola presents gender is central to the drama of Twelfth Night. But to what extent are Viola's gender roles essential to the comedy of the play? The arrivals of Viola and Sebastian in Illyria serve as the catalysts for drama in Twelfth Night. The presence of twins of different sexes yet identical in appearance is a dramaturgical device crucial to the comic resolution, whilst being somewhat farcical.It is the misunderstandings which ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s cross-dressing inevitably causes which make her inverted gender roles so essential to the comedy of the play. Through her disguise, she assumes typically male roles such as of the Ã¢â¬ËfoolÃ¢â¬â¢, and the comic value of her double identity is heightened through the questioning of the gender conventions of Shakespearean theatre.Yet, ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s disguise brings with it a strain of melancholy, lessening her assumed gender rolesÃ¢â¬â¢ comic impact on the play. ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s cross-dressing subverts normality in the respect that she abruptly assumes typically male roles such as that of the Fool. Her first meeting with Olivia as a messenger of OrsinoÃ¢â¬â¢s love is marked by her different approach to courtship.She launches into a preprepared speech of compliments with a poetic apostrophe: Ã¢â¬Ëmost radiant, exquisite and unmatchable beautyÃ¢â¬â¢, only to break into prose to check that she is indeed speaking to Olivia. ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s repeatedly her speech as conventionally courtly, as it is Ã¢â¬Ëexcellently well pennedÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëtis poeticalÃ¢â¬â¢; yet, these comments essentially refer to its artificiality.In fact, juxtaposed to the opening of the play, this whole meeting is a parody of OrsinoÃ¢â¬â¢s clichÃ © approach and indeed the conventions of courtly love. Viola deflates the romantic pretensions of OrsinoÃ¢â¬â¢s embassy, and such ridicule of the Ã¢â¬Ëmale archetypeÃ¢â¬â¢ by a woman is highly comical for its suspension of the accepted inferiority o f women in society.Yet, somewhat more absurd is the fact she has also unintentionally assumed his positions of OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s courtier and indeed of a character of great power and superiority, as her actions free both Orsino and Olivia of their rigidity. Furthermore, it is such witty manipulations of others that prove her to be a kind of fool.Act Three Scene One is marked by Viola and FesteÃ¢â¬â¢s repartee of attempts to surpass each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s wit; ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s reply to FesteÃ¢â¬â¢s comment Ã¢â¬ËNow Jove in his next commodity send thee a beardÃ¢â¬â¢ is Ã¢â¬ËI am almost sick for one, though I would not have it grow on my chinÃ¢â¬â¢. Both comments are pointed references to gender and are thus dramatic irony;FesteÃ¢â¬â¢s taunting of CesarioÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of virility may also serve as a comical meta-theatrical reference to the boy actor playing Viola. However, there is a degree of pathos to ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s admission, as the beard she desires if not her own is surely that of Orsino; thereby, she emphasises the complications of her disguise in pursuing her love interest.Yet, most prominent is ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s parallel to Feste as a Fool. They have a mutual appreciation of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s wit, as Feste comments: Ã¢â¬ËI think I saw your wisdom thereÃ¢â¬â¢, whilst Viola appreciates the intelligence behind his foolery: Ã¢â¬Ëfor folly that he wisely shows is fitÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ She realises the irrationality around her and employs it to her advantage in choosing to cross-dress. Certainly, the whole nature of her disguise itself questions the gaps of seeming, being and knowing, of which the Fool typically explores. Such challenges to male roles make her gender ambiguity amplify the comedy of the play.Viola was played by a boy actor under the conventions of Shakespearean theatre, and this physical fact adds a level of confusion heightening the comedy of her gender roles. Such misplacement is denounced by OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s remark in Act One: Ã¢â¬Ë you are now out of your text / but we will draw the curtain and show you the pictureÃ¢â¬â¢ and certainly by the repeated allusions to CesarioÃ¢â¬â¢s femininity, such as OrsinoÃ¢â¬â¢s remark on her appearance: Ã¢â¬Ëall is semblative a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s partÃ¢â¬â¢.OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s unveiling is a pivotal moment as it represents the end of the mourning for her dead brother and essentially Ã¢â¬ËallowsÃ¢â¬â¢ the comedy to commence for the audience. It is an ironic act to a character Ã¢â¬ËveiledÃ¢â¬â¢ herself, and meta-theatrical reference of Ã¢â¬ËcurtainÃ¢â¬â¢ indicates the misplacement of the actor of Viola as much as the character.For as much as her disguise is her own ploy, it is ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s dramatic device. Orsino taunts Cesario for his lack of virility, yet he may also be commenting on the male actorÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility for the Ã¢â¬ËpartÃ¢â¬â¢ of a woman. No matter how convincing the boy actor was playing Viola, the audience is continually aware that there is a male body under the disguise of a woman and thus a double sex reversal is taking place in ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s disguise.Yet, the Ã¢â¬ËcurtainÃ¢â¬â¢ could be symbolic of the uncovering of much more radical approaches than the conformities of Elizabethan theatre. Much of the playÃ¢â¬â¢s comedy comes from ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s trifling with homosexuality. In Elizabethan England, the idea of such relationships would have been unusual and considerably more absurd than a modern audience may appreciate.The misunderstandings caused byÃ ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s cross-dressing are the root of what audiences of the day would have seen as comic ambiguity. The audience knows Olivia unwittingly desires a woman when she is drawn to the young servant, and we see the relationship between Orsino and Cesario develop throughout the course of the play; indeed, some modern productions show the bond between them in overtly homosexual terms to heighten the comedy. In keeping with the conventions of Eliza bethan comedy as a whole, the play resolves in heterosexual marriage; yet, despite references to Viola in female clothing, this never actually happens.OrsinoÃ¢â¬â¢s parting lines are: Ã¢â¬ËCesario, come Ã¢â¬â / For so shall you be while you are a manÃ¢â¬â¢. Distinct references to her male alias yet none of her feminine form still denote a comic male to male relationship. For, whilst the fact the use of a male actor for Viola is humorous in itself, it is the radical implications of this role which make ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s character so vital to the comedy of Twelfth Night. However, despite the obvious comic implications of her disguise, from ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s double identity arises sexual conflict and the potential for tragedy.In her aside at the end of Act 2 Scene 2, she sympathises with Olivia, remarking Ã¢â¬Ëpoor lady, she were better love a dreamÃ¢â¬â¢, emphasising that as an object of OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s desire she is unattainable. She understands because as Cesario her love for Orsino cannot be reciprocated. He insinuates her gender ambiguity in the previous act: Ã¢â¬ËFor they shall yet belie thy happy years, / That say thou art a manÃ¢â¬â¢. For whilst the disguise grants her access to both parties, the price she pays is the loss of any gender identity, as she cannot be a woman to Orsino or a man to Olivia .She frequently alludes to her gender disparity, such as when Olivia confesses her love in Act Three Scene One, as ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s reply is: Ã¢â¬ËI am not what I am.Ã¢â¬â¢ Her response is dramatic irony at its most explicit and effectively summarises the extent of her travesty in inciting OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s affections. However, this statement is typical of her expression throughout the play; such evasions and wordplay are because she cannot speak of her real self.To the audience, it is somewhat striking that her real name is not pronounced until the very last scene, when Sebastian greets her: Ã¢â¬ËThrice welcome, drowned Viola.Ã¢â¬â¢ The playÃ¢â ¬â¢s resolution aligns with the conventions of comedy in settling misunderstandings and proving a Ã¢â¬Ëhappy endingÃ¢â¬â¢; there is no sense of ViolaÃ¢â¬â¢s individual identity until the reunion with her brother, when correct gender roles are asserted.However, the tragedy of herÃ character is heightened further by the fact Orsino does not even mention her real name in his parting line. Overall, while some critics argue Viola is the most developed of the characters in Twelfth Night, for she is not constrained to a stock character, this inevitably adds an oblique side.Her gender roles may heighten the comedy, but the emotional toll of the disguise which she calls a Ã¢â¬ËwickednessÃ¢â¬â¢ should not be ignored, and detract her from the role as a simple asset in the playÃ¢â¬â¢s comedy.To conclude, the inversion of her gender roles is radiant of the Ã¢â¬Ëcarnival spiritÃ¢â¬â¢ so prevalent in Twelfth Night. We see that the playÃ¢â¬â¢s comedy is very much enhanced by V iolaÃ¢â¬â¢s cross-dressing, in as much the gender conventions her masquerade breaks as the inevitable misunderstandings.However, we see also that cross-dressing has certain tragic implications, true to the nature of comedy harbouring a dark underside. Thus, her gender roles are to a limited extent essential to the comedy of the play.
Monday, September 16, 2019
RFID in Pharmaceutical Industry In 2004, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has called for the implementation of RFID technology to track the distribution of prescription drugs in order to protect the medical supply chain from counterfeit drugs by 2007. Initially, California State Board of Pharmacy has mandated RFID technology but later extended implementation date until 2015. In 2007, Kalorama Information predicted in a report that market for RFID solutions in pharmaceutical industry would worth around $3. bn by 2012, but this got affected by the current global recession, extension given by California State Board of Pharmacy, and other challenges regarding implementation of RFID. A new research report of Jan 2010 revised the market for RFID products and services in the pharmaceutical industry that it will be worth $884m (Ã¢â ¬631m) in 2015. In 2008, RFID market was worth around $112m and predicted value of around $884m in 2015, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 34 pe r cent. Of the current market, 60 per cent is believed to be generated by hardware, with the remaining 40 per cent coming from software and services. RFID Cost As of today, a RFID tags, which is passive only (read-only) can store up to 2KB of data (96bit Serial Number), can cost up to 40 cents US. In case of an active tag (read and write) can cost between $5 to $10, depending upon the material and type of tag. Benefits/Potentials of RFID Counterfeiting Help in fighting against counterfeiting. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 6 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s drugs are counterfeit. Fake prescription drugs costs Pharmaceutical companies around US$30 billion each year. Patient safety This is also related to counterfeiting, as fake drugs may look and feel like the real thing, but they are not. A report by WHO indicated that about 93 percent of cases it tracked didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the correct amount of active ingredients. Brand protection Brand protection is very important for drug manufacturers, as single product-tampering incident can wreak long-term havoc on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. Operational efficiency Easy to identify expired or damaged products, and also they can be monitored not to enter into another supply or order. Retailers and distributor can have a better and clear understanding of inventory in warehouses. RFID Drivers for the Pharmaceutical Industry RFID presents the potential to provide tremendous benefits to the pharmaceutical and health care industries. Some of the key benefits projected with the use of RFID include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Drugs could be identified easily even if they are inside a container. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Counterfeit drugs could be identified easily. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assurance that the ID on the bottle has not been forged or mislabeled. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Helps in keeping track for drugÃ¢â¬â¢s expiry. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Helps in fighting against products from being re-imported and resold at lower cost, which were exported to other developing countries. Unlike bar codes, RFID do not required to be in line-of-sight to read product information. Ã¢â¬ ¢ If implemented across the whole supply chain, product movement and location can be tracked remotely. Ã¢â¬ ¢ More information can be stored on RFID chip and unlike bar code prints, RFID chips can survive harsh conditions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provides ability to reads more products per second as compare to bar code scanning procedure, requiring less human involvement. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Increased potential for reducing clinical trial times by reducing errors and improving delivery accuracy. [pic] RFID Challenges for the Pharmaceutical Industry Lack of standards in technology i. e. whole supply chain should be using same standard. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Unclear or poor businesses case about return-on-investment for pharmaceutical companies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wide spread deployment of RFID technology throughout the supply chain. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cost of implementing RFID infrastructure is very high, which is not attractive for distributors with low profit margin. Passive tag price ranges from 40 cents to $1 USD. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A major retailer will have to invest around $400K at each distribution channel. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Integration issue of RFID with current applications and technical infrastructure. Concerns over which RFID solution to pick which is flexible enough to accommodate multiple business processes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In case of hundreds of read per second, concerns over data quality and synchronization, if tag has been read multiple times or no read at all, or data error while reading and etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Privacy and security concerns such as eavesdropping, tracking attack, fraudulent tags and readers, physical tamper attacks, denial of server (DOS) attacks, how much and what information drug manufacturer or supplier will store on tags and etc. [pic] [pic] References: ttp://www. tompkinsinc. com/publications/competitive_edge/articles/02-04-RFID_Pharma. asp http://www. ascet. com/documents. asp? d_ID=3435 http://www. rfidjournal. com/article/articleview/2435/1/1/ http://scm. ncsu. edu/public/facts/facs030123. htm http://www. aimglobal. org/technologies/rfid/rfid_faqs. aspl http://www. atkearney. com/index. php/Publications/busting-the-myths-of-pharma-rfid. html Ã¢â¬Å"Radio frequency identification technology: applications, technical challenges and strategiesÃ¢â¬ by Suhong Li, John K. Visich, Bashee r M. Khumawala, Chen Zhang.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
In the fall of 1939, the Atlantic Ocean was the dramatic setting of a fierce battle between the British and the Germans. At the time, most people thought that the Battle of the Atlantic may have decided World War IIÃ¢â¬â¢s outcome. This battle was the deciding factor throughout the war. The battle of the Atlantic was a violent and destructive battle. Many people lost their lives fighting in this battle. New technology was one of the major factors in helping the allies win the long and crucial Battle of the Atlantic. The Battle of the Atlantic was a violent and destructive battle which caused chaos in the ocean. Many ships were built then blown up or sunk in sea and some may have survived. This battle was so violent and destructive that each side had its own strategy planned out exactly at when to use it. The allies mass-produced over 100 corvettes in 1943 and by 1945 the allies ships turned from 38 Ã¢â¬â 410 ship because in the spring of 1941, u-boats sunk about 500,000 tons of shipping good each month (u-boats are German submarines). May 1943 was the turning point of the allies. The allies moved from the defensive strategy to offensive; instead of the Germans hunting us, the RCN (Royal Canadian Navy) and company hunted them. By July, the Germans were only capable to destroy/sink 20 ships per month. Ã¢â¬Å"The Battle of the Atlantic was the only thing that ever frightened me. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âWinston Churchill One of the reasons that the Germans got so many kills was because they used a strategy called Ã¢â¬Ëwolf packs. Ã¢â¬â¢ This strategy involves hunting in packs instead of separately; they would hunt with 3-4 ships minimum. Everyone was devastated when this battle erupted; it caused a lot of deaths as well as nightmares for the ones who survived. Up to this day, no one can forget this horrific battle because it was the longest running battle during World War II which was also one of the most destructive ones with the thousands of ships submerged beneath the cold, dark waters of the Atlantic During the 2,075 days of the Battle of the Atlantic, there were many deaths as well as ships sunk on each of the 2 sides. It may have seemed that Germany sunk more ships because they achieved to sink over 1000 ships in 600 months but they were the ones that lost the most. One of the reasons Canada joined the war is because the Germans sunk a passenger ship Ã¢â¬ËSS AtheniaÃ¢â¬â¢ on the coast of Ireland on September 3, 1939 which resulted in 4 Canadians killed. The Germans might have sunk the ship by accident or on purpose but either way, they have killed 4 Canadians and the prime minster was not pleased. There were 95,000 uniformed men and women in the navy. After the war, 2,210 Canadians died; 6 of them were women, 24 warships and 2,900 other ships (merchants etc) sunk including 14 million tons of shipping goods. On the other hand, the Germans lost 800 u-boats, 42 enemy surface crafts and 30,000 of the 39,000 Germans never returned. Although many Canadians died in this ongoing battle, we (the navy) commemorate them for their actions during this battle every year on the first Sunday of May. The allies (RC/RCN) struggled throughout the war because of the lack of technology. In the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s a new sonar system was created to help the allies detect the enemies. In the beginning, the allies only had an early type of sonar called Ã¢â¬ËASDICÃ¢â¬â¢ (Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee). ASDIC was most effective when used underwater where the allies could detect long range u-boats but on surface, the u-boats were undetectable. As the war continued, allies were equipped with a better, more advanced sonar system which could detect u-boats underwater and even on the surface in dense fog; the allies perfected the technique Ã¢â¬ËRadio Directional FindingÃ¢â¬â¢ (RDF) as they received this new enhanced technology. With the new technology in hand, the allies had a special feature; they could locate wolf packs accurately using the u-boat radio transmissions. The results of the new features and technological innovations were fantastic; the allies could hold their ground against the u-boats when escorting ships such as merchants etc. Since we now have the advanced technology of the sonar from the battle, our sonar technology is improving every day. When the Battle of the Atlantic came to an end, World War II was close to the end. With many injured, dead and submerged under the waters of the Atlantic, they helped the allies win the battle and defeat the Germans as well as innovating the sonar and navy technology. Every year on the first Sunday of May, the navy would commemorate the ones who fought in the Battle of the Atlantic as they did some heroic actions leading the allies into victory!Bibliography http://wwii.ca/page-54/-battle-of-the-atlantic-.html
Saturday, September 14, 2019
( B ) Critically appraise the findings of empirical surveies that have estimated compensating pay derived functions. Compensating derived function is a term used in labour economic sciences to analyse the relation between the pay rate and the unpleasantness, hazard, or other unwanted properties of a peculiar occupation. A counterbalancing derived function, which is besides called a compensating pay derived function or an equalizing difference, is defined as the extra sum of income that a given worker must be offered in order to actuate them to accept a given unwanted occupation, comparative to other occupations that worker could execute. One can besides talk of the counterbalancing derived function for an particularly desirable occupation, or one that provides particular benefits, but in this instance the derived function would be negative: that is, a given worker would be willing to accept a lower pay for an particularly desirable occupation, comparative to other occupations. The thought of counterbalancing derived functions has been used to analyse issues such as the hazard of future unemployment, the hazard of hurt, the hazard of insecure sex, and the pecuniary value workers place on their ain lives. ( Wikipaedia ) A batch of theoretical accounts have been presented by different writers of the universe sing counterbalancing pay derived functions and a batch of surveies have been made as good. Based on these surveies, studies and analyses findings have been published in the diaries, newspapers and web sites. These publications stressed on the compensating pay derived functions non merely for the workers exposed to decease due to accidents but on the other grounds as good. The term Ã¢â¬ËRisk Premium Ã¢â¬Ë is besides used as an option to the compensating pay derived functions for the workers making unsafe occupations. Marin and Psacharopoulos ( 1982 ) , in the first paper utilizing British informations from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys ( OPCS ) Occupational Mortality Decennial Supplement 1970-72, find grounds of a pay premium for exposure to fatal hazard. Sandy and Elliott ( 1996 ) and Arabsheibani and Marin ( 2000 ) utilizing similar informations over the period 1979 to 1983, and Siebert and Wei ( 1994 ) utilizing Health and Safety Executive ( HSE ) information for 1986 to 1988, all find grounds of a fatal hazard premium. Another survey has been made in the Hong Kong sing counterbalancing pay derived functions giving particular accent on the hazard associated with the workplace human death. The information has been collected from the 1991 nose count and so it has been merged with the accident informations provided by the Labour Department. A theory has been presented by Thaler and Rosen in 1976. The appraisal of counterbalancing pay derived functions has been carried out with the undermentioned expression W = a0+ a1X + a2P + vitamin E Where tungsten is the pay rate, X a vector of single and occupation features, including the usual human capital variables ; P is a step of occupation hazard and vitamin E is an error term. Over the past two decennaries surveies have estimated compensating pay derived functions by utilizing this equation. The consequence usually suggests that a positive and important compensating pay derived function for the occupations with mortality hazard is found majorly in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and Japan. Another of import factor the compensating pay derived functions has been identified as ; child punishment Ã¢â¬Ë . The fact that female parents tend to gain less than adult females without kids seems to be good established in the economic literature and is calledkid punishmentorhousehold spread. Several research workers found natural pay spreads of about 20 % for the US, 13 % for the UK and up to 20 % for Germany. In order to look into the impact of maternity on the pick between monetary and non-pecuniary occupation features the German Socio-Economic Panel ( GSOEP ; 1984-2003 ) was used by Christina in 2006. The sample of involvement consists of adult females during their fertile period, defined as the age from 16 to 46. The dataset provides elaborate information about personal and occupation features, about monetary and in peculiar non-pecuniary 1s. Besides it reports satisfaction with the occupation what is used as a placeholder for public-service corporation and allows proving if both monetary and non-pecuniary occupation features determine jointly the satisfaction of a female parent. The longitudinal nature of the information allows detecting female parents around first birth. The dataset used is the German Socioeconomic Panel ( GSOEP ) , which is a annually repeated study of Germans and Foreigners in West and East Germany ( 1984-2003 ) . Since 1984 the GSOEP follows the members of the panel. In 2003 the GSOEP provided information about more than 12000 families dwelling of more than 24000 people In order to prove the hypothesis of the kid punishment as a compensating pay derived function, the following methodological analysis, divided in three parts, has been conducted. A first measure was to look into if motherhood truly affects the occupation features, i.e. if non merely the pecuniary but besides the non-pecuniary occupation features change after maternity and therefore the loss of pay might be compensated with an addition in comfortss. In order to gauge alterations in occupation features around and after maternity, an event survey analysis has been used which surveies the effects of first birth on a assortment of occupation features. A 2nd necessary measure was to demo if and how certain occupation characteristics enter the public-service corporation of female parents. Harmonizing to theory of counterbalancing pay derived functions both monetary and non-pecuniary features determine jointly the public-service corporation of a worker. In instance a female parent is willing to give up portion of her income in order to hold a more household friendly occupation, certain occupation features have to counterbalance for this loss in pay and therefore rais e the public-service corporation of a female parent. In order to prove this through empirical observation satisfaction arrested developments has been used. In a last measure the existent compensating pay derived function has been measured, i.e. how much of their pay female parents is willing to give up for holding a occupation with more comfortss ( less disamenities ) . Therefore as a last measure a hedonistic pay arrested development has been run including certain ( dis- ) comfortss as control variables. The decision of the above treatment reveals that the compensating pay derived functions have been surveies by many of the analysts around the Earth utilizing different methodological analysiss and statistics. These surveies helped the users understanding the tendency sing counterbalancing pay derived functions and the impact on workers.MentionsWikipaedia hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compensating_wage_differential Arnaud Dupuy, Wendy Smits How Large is the Compensating Wage Differential for R & A ; D Workers hypertext transfer protocol: //ftp.iza.org/dp4194.pdf Andrea Christina Felfe 2006 The kid punishment Ã¢â¬â A compensating pay derived function hypertext transfer protocol: //www.eale.nl/conference2006/Papers % 20Friday % 2017.00 % 20- % 2019.00/add15235.pdf Joseph Lanfranchi, Henry Ohlsson, Ali Skalli Compensating Wage Derived functions And Shift Work Preferences* Evidence from France hypertext transfer protocol: //gupea.ub.gu.se/dspace/bitstream/2077/2897/1/gunwpe0055.pdf Asiatic Economic Journal 1998, Vol 12 No. 2 Wage Compensation for Job Risks: The Case of Hong Kong hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ln.edu.hk/econ/staff/xdwei/docs/edman/wei_aej.pdf Jean Abraham, Stephanie Lluis 2008 Compensating Derived functions and Fringe Benefits: Evidence from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 1997-2004 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/03/art4full.pdf