Saturday, August 31, 2019

“Blue Collar Brilliance” by Mike Rose Essay

Rose challenges the view that intelligence can be measured by the amount of schooling a person has completed. He suggests that blue-collar and service jobs require more intelligence than meets the eye. He describes his experiences growing up observing his mother as a waitress in coffee shops and family restaurants. He depicts his mother as a dynamic woman who loved her job and put her heart and soul into being a waitress. He described the way she memorized who ordered what, how long each dish is supposed to take to prepare, and how she became a professional at deciphering the emotional needs of her customers and colleagues alike. He also details his uncle’s work at the General Motors factory and shows the amount of intelligence that was required of him as he rose from being on the production line to supervising paint jobs. Rose explains how he observed different types of blue- collar and service workers in action, and came to the conclusion that each of them have a skill that takes a lot of mind power to master. I agree with Rose that the amount of schooling a person complete doesn’t necessarily measure their intelligence level. Especially in today’s economy many people can’t afford to pursue higher education, and that doesn’t mean that they wouldn’t make excellent doctors or lawyers if they could afford the schooling. Not everyone has the means to acquire degrees and titles; some don’t even have the desire. I believe that higher education is a worthwhile endeavor, but I also believe that it is the best route for some and not for all. Attending college is not the only way that a person can lead a happy and fulfilling life.

Japan Staffing Approach

What is the crime rate of the country you have chosen? Use outside references. In past classes the crime rate question doesnt get enough attention, so spend some time on this. How does your country's crime stats compare to the U. S.? According to the travel. state. gov Japan has low rate of crime.Security issue in Japan, Crime levels are low. It is generally safe to walk about at night and to travel on public transport, but you should maintain the same level of vigilance as you would at home and take sensible precautions. Safety scale of Japan is 80. 98 (Numbeo, 2013). Japanese government authorities cannot rule out the threat of terrorism in Japan. As a counter-terrorism precaution, the Japanese government has, since July 2005, implemented heightened security measures at key facilities including on public transport and at ports of entry. Recent changes inJapan's security policies have been interpreted by the media as representing a scrapping of the countrys pacifist restrictions, le ading it toward becoming a â€Å"normal† nation and acquiring a more assertive military. These changes include permitting the right to exercise collective self-defense, creating a National Security Council, relaxing a ban on exporting defense-related equipment and procuring new military assets. The changes are significant, but they do not represent a fundamental shift. Instead, they represent a pragmatic evolution in response to Japan's increasingly dangerous eighborhood.If possible, avoid carrying credit cards or large amounts of cash to parties, bars, clubs or entertainment districts. Do not leave your drink unattended. Think about your personal safety, take appropriate precautions and refer to our intormation tor travellers partying overseas tor turtner advice. Sporadic incidents ot bag snatching and pickpocketing of foreigners in crowded shopping areas, on trains and at airports have occurred. Credit card and ATM fraud can occur in Japan. If you are suspicious of any item s that are stuck to ATMs or look unusual, do not use the machine. Exercise normal safety precautions and take care with your valuables.

Friday, August 30, 2019

The Twilight Saga 2: New Moon Chapter 7 REPETITION

I WASN'T SURE WHAT THE HELL I WAS DOING HERE Was I trying to push myself back into the zombie stupor? Had I turned masochisticdeveloped a taste for torture? I should have gone straight down to La Push I felt much, much healthier around Jacob This was not a healthy thing to do. But I continued to drive slowly down the overgrown lane, twisting through the trees that arched over me like a green, living tunnel My hands were shaking, so I tightened my grip on the steering wheel. I knew that part of the reason I did this was the nightmare, now that I was really awake, the nothingness of the dream gnawed on my nerves, a dog worrying a bone. There was something to search for. Unattainable and impossible, uncaring and distracted but he was out there, somewhere. I had to believe that. The other part was the strange sense of repetition I'd felt at school today, the coincidence of the date. The feeling that I was starting overperhaps the way my first day would have gone if I'd really been the most unusual person in the cafeteria that afternoon. The words ran through my head, tonelessly, like I was reading them rather than hearing them spoken: It will be as if I'd never existed. I was lying to myself by splitting my reason for coming here into just two parts. I didn't want to admit the strongest motivation. Because it was mentally unsound. The truth was that I wanted to hear his voice again, like I had in the strange delusion Friday night. For that brief moment, when his voice came from some other part of me than my conscious memory, when his voice was perfect and honey smooth rather than the pale echo my memories usually produced, I was able to remember without pain. It hadn't lasted; the pain had caught up with me, as I was sure it would for this fool's errand. But those precious moments when I could hear him again were an irresistible lure. I had to find some way to repeat the experience or maybe the better word was episode. I was hoping that dj vu was the key. So I was going to his home, a place I hadn't been since my ill-fated birthday party, so many months ago. The thick, almost jungle-like growth crawled slowly past my windows. The drive wound on and on. I started to go faster, getting edgy. How long had I been driving? Shouldn't I have reached the house yet? The lane was so overgrown that it did not look familiar. What if I couldn't find it? I shivered. What if there was no tangible proof at all? Then there was the break in the trees that I was looking for, only it was not so pronounced as before. The flora here did not wait long to reclaim any land that was left unguarded. The tall ferns had infiltrated the meadow around the house, crowding against the trunks of the cedars, even the wide porch. It was like the lawn had been floodedwaist-highwith green, feathery waves. And the house was there, but it was not the same. Though nothing had changed on the outside, the emptiness screamed from the blank windows. It was creepy. For the first time since I'd seen the beautiful house, it looked like a fitting haunt for vampires. I hit the brakes, looking away. I was afraid to go farther. But nothing happened. No voice in my head. So I left the engine running and jumped out into the fern sea. Maybe, like Friday night, if I walked forward I approached the barren, vacant face slowly, my truck rumbling out a comforting roar behind me. I stopped when I got to the porch stairs, because there was nothing here. No lingering sense of their presence of his presence. The house was solidly here, but it meant little. Its concrete reality would not counteract the nothingness of the nightmares. I didn't go any closer. I didn't want to look in the windows. I wasn't sure which would be harder to see. If the rooms were bare, echoing empty from floor to ceiling, that would certainly hurt. Like my grandmother's funeral, when my mother had insisted that I stay outside during the viewing. She had said that I didn't need to see Gran that way, to remember her that way, rather than alive. But wouldn't it be worse if there were no change? If the couches sat just as I'd last seen them, the paintings on the wallsworse still, the piano on its low platform? It would be second only to the house disappearing all together, to see that there was no physical possession that tied them in anyway. That everything remained, untouched and forgotten, behind them. Just like me. I turned my back on the gaping emptiness and hurried to my truck. I nearly ran. I was anxious to be gone, to get back to the human world. I felt hideously empty, and I wanted to see Jacob. Maybe I was developing a new kind of sickness, another addiction, like the numbness before. I didn't care. I pushed my truck as fast as it would go as I barreled toward my fix. Jacob was waiting for me. My chest seemed to relax as soon as I saw him, making it easier to breathe. â€Å"Hey, Bella,† he called. I smiled in relief. â€Å"Hey, Jacob,† I waved at Billy, who was looking out the window. â€Å"Let's get to work,† Jacob said in a low but eager voice. I was somehow able to laugh. â€Å"You seriously aren't sick of me yet?† I wondered. He must be starting to ask himself how desperate I was for company. Jacob led the way around the house to his garage. â€Å"Nope. Not yet.† â€Å"Please let me know when I start getting on your nerves. I don't want to be a pain.† â€Å"Okay.† He laughed, a throaty sound. â€Å"I wouldn't hold your breath for that, though.† When I walked into the garage, I was shocked to see the red bike standing up, looking like a motorcycle rather than a pile of jagged metal. â€Å"Jake, you're amazing,† I breathed. He laughed again. â€Å"I get obsessive when I have a project.† He shrugged. â€Å"If I had any brains I'd drag it out a little bit.† â€Å"Why?† He looked down, pausing for so long that I wondered if he hadn't heard my question. Finally, he asked me, â€Å"Bella, if I told you that I couldn't fix these bikes, what would you say?† I didn't answer right away, either, and he glanced up to check my expression. â€Å"I would say that's too bad, but I'll bet we could figure out something else to do. If we got really desperate, we could even do homework.† Jacob smiled, and his shoulders relaxed. He sat down next to the bike and picked up a wrench. â€Å"So you think you'll still come over when I'm done, then?† â€Å"Is that what you meant?† I shook my head. â€Å"I guess I am taking advantage of your very underpriced mechanical skills. But as long as you let me come over, I'll be here.† â€Å"Hoping to see Quil again?† he teased. â€Å"You caught me.† He chuckled. â€Å"You really like spending time with me?† he asked, marveling. â€Å"Very, very much. And I'll prove it. I have to work tomorrow, but Wednesday we'll do something nonmechanical.† â€Å"Like what?† â€Å"I have no idea. We can go to my place so you won't be tempted to be obsessive. You could bring your schoolworkyou have to be getting behind, because I know I am.† â€Å"Homework might be a good idea.† He made a face, and I wondered how much he was leaving undone to be with me. â€Å"Yes,† I agreed. â€Å"We'll have to start being responsible occasionally, or Billy and Charlie aren't going to be so easygoing about this.† I made a gesture indicating the two of us as a single entity. He liked thathe beamed. â€Å"Homework once a week?† he proposed. â€Å"Maybe we'd better go with twice,† I suggested, thinking of the pile I'd just been assigned today. He sighed a heavy sigh. Then he reached over his toolbox to a paper grocery sack. He pulled out two cans of soda, cracking one open and handing it to me. He opened the second, and held it up ceremoniously. â€Å"Here's to responsibility,† he toasted. â€Å"Twice a week.† â€Å"And recklessness every day in between,† I emphasized. He grinned and touched his can to mine. I got home later than I'd planned and found Charlie had ordered a pizza rather than wait for me. He wouldn't let me apologize. â€Å"I don't mind,† he assured me. â€Å"You deserve a break from all the cooking, anyway.† I knew he was just relieved that I was still acting like a normal person, and he was not about to rock the boat. I checked my e-mail before I started on my homework, and there was a long one from Renee. She gushed over every detail I'd provided her with, so I sent back another exhaustive description of my day. Everything but the motorcycles. Even happy-go-lucky Renee was likely to be alarmed by that. School Tuesday had its ups and downs. Angela and Mike seemed ready to welcome me back with open armsto kindly overlook my few months of aberrant behavior. Jess was more resistant. I wondered if she needed a formal written apology for the Port Angeles incident. Mike was animated and chatty at work. It was like he'd stored up the semester's worth of talk, and it was all spilling out now. I found that I was able to smile and laugh with him, though it wasn't as effortless as it was with Jacob. It seemed harmless enough, until quitting time. Mike put the closed sign in the window while I folded my vest and shoved it under the counter. â€Å"This was fun tonight,† Mike said happily. â€Å"Yeah,† I agreed, though I'd much rather have spent the afternoon in the garage. â€Å"It's too bad that you had to leave the movie early last week.† I was a little confused by his train of thought. I shrugged. â€Å"I'm just a wimp, I guess.† â€Å"What I mean is, you should go to a better movie, something you'd enjoy,† he explained. â€Å"Oh,† I muttered, still confused. â€Å"Like maybe this Friday. With me. We could go see something that isn't scary at all.† I bit my lip. I didn't want to screw things up with Mike, not when he was one of the only people ready to forgive me for being crazy. But this, again, felt far too familiar. Like the last year had never happened. I wished I had Jess as an excuse this time. â€Å"Like a date?† I asked. Honesty was probably the best policy at this point. Get it over with. He processed the tone of my voice â€Å"If you want. But it doesn't have to be like that.† â€Å"I don't date,† I said slowly, realizing how true that was. That whole world seemed impossibly distant. â€Å"Just as friends?† he suggested. His clear blue eyes were not as eager now. I hoped he really meant that we could be friends anyway. â€Å"That would be fun. But I actually have plans already this Friday, so maybe next week?† â€Å"What are you doing?† he asked, less casually than I think he wanted to sound. â€Å"Homework. I have a study session planned with a friend.† â€Å"Oh. Okay. Maybe next week.† He walked me to my car, less exuberant than before. It reminded me so clearly of my first months in Forks. I'd come full circle, and now everything felt like an echoan empty echo, devoid of the interest it used to have. The next night, Charlie didn't seem the smallest bit surprised to find Jacob and me sprawled across the living room floor with our books scattered around us, so I guessed that he and Billy were talking behind our backs. â€Å"Hey, kids,† he said, his eyes straying to the kitchen. The smell of the lasagna I'd spent the afternoon makingwhile Jacob watched and occasionally sampledwafted down the hall; I was being good, trying to atone for all the pizza. Jacob stayed for dinner, and took a plate home for Billy. He grudgingly added another year to my negotiable age for being a good cook. Friday was the garage, and Saturday, after my shift at Newton's, was homework again. Charlie felt secure enough in my sanity to spend the day fishing with Harry. When he got back, we were all donefeeling very sensible and mature about it, tooand watching Monster Garage on the Discovery Channel. â€Å"I probably ought to go.† Jacob sighed. â€Å"It's later than I thought.† â€Å"Okay, fine,† I grumbled. â€Å"I'll take you home.† He laughed at my unwilling expressionit seemed to please him. â€Å"Tomorrow, back to work,† I said as soon as we were safe in the truck. â€Å"What time do you want me to come up?† There was an unexplained excitement in his answering smile. â€Å"I'll call you first, okay?† â€Å"Sure.† I frowned to myself, wondering what was up. His smile widened. I cleaned the house the next morningwaiting for Jacob to call and trying to shake off the Litest nightmare. The scenery had changed. Last night I'd wandered in a wide sea of ferns interspersed with huge hemlock trees. There was nothing else there, and I was lost, wandering aimless and alone, searching for nothing. I wanted to kick myself for the stupid field trip last week. I shoved the dream out of my conscious mind, hoping it would stay locked up somewhere and not escape again. Charlie was outside washing the cruiser, so when the phone rang, I dropped the toilet brush and ran downstairs to answer it. â€Å"Hello?† I asked breathlessly. â€Å"Bella,† Jacob said, a strange, formal tone to his voice. â€Å"Hey, Jake.† â€Å"I believe that we have a date† he said, his tone thick with implications. It took me a second before I got it. â€Å"They're done? I can't believe it!† What perfect timing. I needed something to distract me from nightmares and nothingness. â€Å"Yeah, they run and everything.† â€Å"Jacob, you are absolutely, without a doubt, the most talented and wonderful person I know. You get ten years for this one.† â€Å"Cool! I'm middle-aged now.† I laughed. â€Å"I'm on my way up!† I threw the cleaning supplies under the bathroom counter and grabbed my jacket. â€Å"Headed to see Jake,† Charlie said when I ran past him. It wasn't really a question. â€Å"Yep,† I replied as I jumped in my truck. â€Å"I'll be at the station later,† Charlie called after me. â€Å"Okay,† I yelled back, turning the key. Charlie said something else, but I couldn't hear him clearly over the roar of the engine. It sounded sort of like, â€Å"Where's the fire?† I parked my truck off to the side of the Blacks' house, close to the trees, to make it easier for us to sneak the bikes out. When I got out, a splash of color caught my eyetwo shiny motorcycles, one red, one black, were hidden under a spruce, invisible from the house. Jacob was prepared. There was a piece of blue ribbon tied in a small bow around each of the handlebars. I was laughing at that when Jacob ran out of the house. â€Å"Ready?† he asked in a low voice, his eyes sparkling. I glanced over his shoulder, and there was no sign of Billy. â€Å"Yeah,† I said, but I didn't feel quite as excited as before; I was trying to imagine myself actually on the motorcycle. Jacob loaded the bikes into the bed of the truck with ease, laying them carefully on their sides so they didn't show. â€Å"Let's go,† he said, his voice higher than usual with excitement. â€Å"I know the perfect spotno one will catch us there.† We drove south out of town. The dirt road wove in and out of the forestsometimes there was nothing but trees, and then there would suddenly be a breathtaking glimpse of the Pacific Ocean, reaching to the horizon, dark gray under the clouds. We were above the shore, on top of the cliffs that bordered the beach here and the view seemed to stretch on forever. I was driving slowly, so that I could safely stare out across the ocean now and then, as the road wound closer to the sea cliffs. Jacob was talking about finishing the bikes, but his descriptions were getting technical, so I wasn't paying close attention. That was when I noticed four figures standing on a rocky ledge, much too close to the precipice. I couldn't tell from the distance how old they were, but I assumed they were men. Despite the chill in the air today, they seemed to be wearing only shorts. As I watched, the tallest person stepped closer to the brink. I slowed automatically, my foot hesitating over the brake pedal. And then he threw himself off the edge. â€Å"No!† I shouted, stomping down on the brake. â€Å"What's wrong?† Jacob shouted back, alarmed. â€Å"That guyhe just jumped off the cliff! Why didn't they stop him? We've got to call an ambulance!† I threw open my door and started to get out, which made no sense at all. The fastest way to a phone was to drive back to Billy's. But I couldn't believe what I'd just seen. Maybe, subconsciously, I hoped I would see something different without the glass of the windshield in the way. Jacob laughed, and I spun to stare at him wildly. How could he be so calloused, so cold-blooded? â€Å"They're just cliff diving, Bella. Recreation. La Push doesn't have a mall, you know.† He was teasing, but there was a strange note of irritation in his voice. â€Å"Cliff diving?† I repeated, dazed. I stared in disbelief as a second figure stepped to the edge, paused, and then very gracefully leaped into space. He fell for what seemed like an eternity to me, finally cutting smoothly into the dark gray waves below. â€Å"Wow. It's so high.† I slid back into my seat, still staring wide-eyed at the two remaining divers. â€Å"It must be a hundred feet.† â€Å"Well, yeah, most of us jump from lower down, that rock that juts out from the cliff about halfway.† He pointed out his window. The place he indicated did seem much more reasonable. â€Å"Those guys are insane. Probably showing off how tough they are. I mean, really, it's freezing today. That water can't feel good.† He made a disgruntled face, as if the stunt personally offended him. It surprised me a little. I would have thought Jacob was nearly impossible to upset. â€Å"You jump off the cliff?† I hadn't missed the â€Å"us.† â€Å"Sure, sure.† He shrugged and grinned. â€Å"It's fun. A little scary, kind of a rush.† I looked back at the cliffs, where the third figure was pacing the edge. I'd never witnessed anything so reckless in all my life. My eyes widened, and I smiled. â€Å"Jake, you have to take me cliff diving.† He frowned back at me, his face disapproving. â€Å"Bella, you just wanted to call an ambulance for Sam,† he reminded me. I was surprised that he could tell who it was from this distance. â€Å"I want to try,† I insisted, start ing to get out of the car again. Jacob grabbed my wrist. â€Å"Not today, all right? Can we at least wait for a warmer day?† â€Å"Okay, fine,† I agreed. With the door open, the glacial breeze was raising goose bumps on my arm. â€Å"But I want to go soon.† â€Å"Soon.† He rolled his eyes. â€Å"Sometimes you're a little strange, Bella. Do you know that?† I sighed. â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"And we're not jumping off the top.† I watched, fascinated, as the third boy made a running start and flung himself farther into the empty air than the other two. He twisted and cartwheeled through space as he fell, like he was skydiving. He looked absolutely freeunthinking and utterly irresponsible. â€Å"Fine,† I agreed. â€Å"Not the first time, anyway.† Now Jacob sighed. â€Å"Are we going to try out the bikes or not?† he demanded. â€Å"Okay, okay,† I said, tearing my eyes away from the last person waiting on the cliff. I put my seat belt back on and closed the door. The engine was still running, roaring as it idled. We started down the road again. â€Å"So who were those guysthe crazy ones?† I wondered. He made a disgusted sound in the back of his throat. â€Å"The La Push gang.† â€Å"You have a gang?† I asked. I realized that I sounded impressed. He laughed once at my reaction. â€Å"Not like that. I swear, they're like hall monitors gone bad. They don't start fights, they keep the peace.† He snorted. â€Å"There was this guy from up somewhere by the Makah rez, big guy too, scary-looking. Well, word got around that he was selling meth to kids, and Sam Uley and his disciples ran him off our land. They're all about our land, and tribe pride it's getting ridiculous. The worst part is that the council takes them seriously. Embry said that the council actually meets with Sam.† He shook his head, face full of resentment. â€Å"Embry also heard from Leah Clearwater that they call themselves ‘protectors' or something like that.† Jacob's hands were clenched into fists, as if he'd like to hit something. I'd never seen this side of him. I was surprised to hear Sam Uley's name. I didn't want it to bring back the images from my nightmare, so I made a quick observation to distract myself. â€Å"You don't like them very much.† â€Å"Does it show?† he asked sarcastically. â€Å"Well It doesn't sound like they're doing anything bad.† I tried to soothe him, to make him cheerful again. â€Å"Just sort of annoyingly goody-two-shoes for a gang.† â€Å"Yeah. Annoying is a good word. They're always showing offlike the cliff thing. They act like like, I don't know. Like tough guys. I was hanging out at the store with Embry and Quil once, last semester, and Sam came by with his followers, Jared and Paul. Quil said something, you know how he's got a big mouth, and it pissed Paul off. His eyes got all dark, and he sort of smiledno, he showed his teeth but he didn't smileand it was like he was so mad he was shaking or something. But Sam put his hand against Paul's chest and shook his head. Paul looked at him for a minute and calmed down. Honestly, it was like Sam was holding him backlike Paul was going to tear us up if Sam didn't stop him.† He groaned. â€Å"Like a bad western. You know, Sam's a pretty big guy, he's twenty. But Paul's just sixteen, too, shorter than me and not as beefy as Quil. I think any one of us could take him.† â€Å"Tough guys,† I agreed. I could see it in my head as he described it, and it reminded me of something a trio of tall, dark men standing very still and close together in my father's living room. The picture was sideways, because my head was lying against the couch while Dr. Gerandy and Charlie leaned over me Had that been Sam's gang? I spoke quickly again to divert myself from the bleak memories. â€Å"Isn't Sam a little too old for this kind of thing?† â€Å"Yeah. He was supposed to go to college, but he stayed. And no one gave him any crap about it, either. The whole council pitched a fit when my sister turned down a partial scholarship and got married. But, oh no, Sam Uley can do no wrong.† His face was set in unfamiliar lines of outrageoutrage and something else I didn't recognize at first. â€Å"It all sounds really annoying and strange. But I don't get why you're taking it so personally.† I peeked over at his face, hoping I hadn't offended him. He was suddenly calm, staring out the side window. â€Å"You just missed the turn,† he said in an even voice. I executed a very wide U-turn, nearly hitting a tree as my circle ran the truck halfway off the road. â€Å"Thanks for the heads-up,† I muttered as I started up the side road. â€Å"Sorry, I wasn't paying attention.† It was quiet for a brief minute. â€Å"You can stop anywhere along here,† he said softly. I pulled over and cut the engine. My ears rang in the silence that followed. We both got out, and Jacob headed around to the back to get the bikes. I tried to read his expression. Something more was bothering him. I'd hit a nerve. He smiled halfheartedly as he pushed the red bike to my side. â€Å"Happy late birthday. Are you ready for this?† â€Å"I think so.† The bike suddenly looked intimidating, frightening, as I realized I would soon be astride it. â€Å"We'll take it slow,† he promised. I gingerly leaned the motorcycle against the truck's fender while he went to get his. â€Å"Jake†I hesitated as he came back around the truck. â€Å"Yeah?† â€Å"What's really bothering you? About the Sam thing, I mean? Is there something else?† I watched his face. He grimaced, but he didn't seem angry. He looked at the dirt and kicked his shoe against the front tire of his bike again and again, like he was keeping time. He sighed. â€Å"It's just the way they treat me. It creeps me out.† The words started to rush out now. â€Å"You know, the council is supposed to be made up of equals, but if there was a leader, it would be my dad. I've never been able to figure out why people treat him the way they do. Why his opinion counts the most. It's got something to do with his father and his father's father. My great-grandpa, Ephraim Black, was sort of the last chief we had, and they still listen to Billy, maybe because of that. â€Å"But I'm just like everyone else. Nobody treats me special until now.† That caught me off guard. â€Å"Sam treats you special?† â€Å"Yeah,† he agreed, looking up at me with troubled eyes. â€Å"He looks at me like he's waiting for something like I'm going to join his stupid gang someday. He pays more attention to me than any of the other guys. I hate it.† â€Å"You don't have to join anything.† My voice was angry. This was really upsetting Jacob, and that infuriated me. Who did these â€Å"protectors† think they were? â€Å"Yeah.† His foot kept up its rhythm against the tire. â€Å"What?† I could tell there was more. He frowned, his eyebrows pulling up in a way that looked sad and worried rather than angry. â€Å"It's Embry. He's been avoiding me lately.† The thoughts didn't seem connected, but I wondered if I was to blame for the problems with his friend. â€Å"You've been hanging out with me a lot,† I reminded him, feeling selfish. I'd been monopolizing him. â€Å"No, that's not it. It's not just meit's Quil, too, and everyone. Embry missed a week of school, but he was never home when we tried to see him. And when he came back, he looked he looked freaked out. Terrified. Quil and I both tried to get him to tell us what was wrong, but he wouldn't talk to either one of us.† I stared at Jacob, biting my lip anxiouslyhe was really frightened. But he didn't look at me. He watched his own foot kicking the rubber as if it belonged to someone else. The tempo increased. â€Å"Then this week, out of nowhere, Embry's hanging out with Sam and the rest of them. He was out on the cliffs today.† His voice was low and tense. He finally looked at me. â€Å"Bella, they bugged him even more than they bother me. He didn't want anything to do with them. And now Embry's following Sam around like he's joined a cult. â€Å"And that's the way it was with Paul. Just exactly the same. He wasn't friends with Sam at all. Then he stopped coming to school for a few weeks, and, when he came back, suddenly Sam owned him. I don't know what it means. I can't figure it out, and I feel like I have to, because Embry's my friend and Sam's looking at me funny . . and† He trailed off. â€Å"Have you talked to Billy about this?† I asked. His horror was spreading to me. I had chills running on the back of my neck. Now there was anger on his face. â€Å"Yes,† he snorted. â€Å"That was helpful.† â€Å"What did he say?† Jacob's expression was sarcastic, and when he spoke, his voice mocked the deep tones of his father's voice. â€Å"It's nothing you need to worry about now, Jacob. In a few years, if you don't well, I'll explain later.† And then his voice was his own. â€Å"What am I supposed to get from that? Is he trying to say it's some stupid puberty, coming-of-age thing? This is something else. Something wrong.† He was biting his lower lip and clenching his hands. He looked like he was about to cry. I threw my arms around him instinctively, wrapping them around his waist and pressing my face against his chest. He was so big, I felt like I was a child hugging a grown-up. â€Å"Oh, Jake, it'll be okay!† I promised. â€Å"If it gets worse you can come live with me and Charlie. Don't be scared, we'll think of something!† He was frozen for a second, and then his long arms wrapped hesitantly around me. â€Å"Thanks, Bella.† His voice was huskier than usual. We stood like that for a moment, and it didn't upset me; in fact, I felt comforted by the contact. This didn't feel anything like the last time someone had embraced me this way. This was friendship. And Jacob was very warm. It was strange for me, being this closeemotionally rather than physically, though the physical was strange for me, tooto another human being. It wasn't my usual style. I didn't normally relate to people so easily, on such a basic level. Not human beings. â€Å"If this is how you're going to react, I'll freak out more often.† Jacob's voice was light, normal again, and his laughter rumbled against my ear. His fingers touched my hair, soft and tentative. Well, it was friendship for me. I pulled away quickly, laughing with him, but determined to put things back in perspective at once. â€Å"It's hard to believe I'm two years older than you,† I said, emphasizing the word older. â€Å"You make me feel like a dwarf.† Standing this close to him, I really had to crane my neck to see his face. â€Å"You're forgetting I'm in my forties, of course.† â€Å"Oh, that's right.† He patted my head. â€Å"You're like a little doll,† he teased. â€Å"A porcelain doll.† I rolled my eyes, taking another step away. â€Å"Let's not start with the albino cracks.† â€Å"Seriously, Bella, are you sure you're not?† He stretched his russet arm out next to mine. The difference wasn't flattering. â€Å"I've never seen anyone paler than you well, except for† He broke off, and I looked away, trying to not understand what he had been about to say. â€Å"So are we going to ride or what?† â€Å"Let's do it,† I agreed, more enthusiastic than I would have been half a minute ago. His unfinished sentence reminded me of why I was here.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Isaac Newton is a great man Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Isaac Newton is a great man - Research Paper Example There are, however, many facets to this man’s life, other than being a scientist that are worthy to know. Perhaps that is what truly causes mankind to label an individual the â€Å"greatest.† Possessing not only scientific prowess, but also religious and philosophical ponderings, Newton is still a focus of conversation in academic and theological circles nearly 300 years after his death. While people will certainly argue that Sir Isaac Newton should not be regarded as the â€Å"greatest,† this paper will argue that he is certainly worthy of that title based on the magnitude of his scientific discoveries and the depth of his wisdom and thinking. Isaac Newton was born in Woolsthorpe, England in 1642 and grew up to be an authority in Mathematics, dynamics, celestial mechanics, astronomy, optics and philosophy (Newton). His life seems to have been influenced by the death of his father who died few months prior to Newton’s birth (English-Online). He took charge of his life early in his life, waiting on tables and doing menial jobs for wealthy students to pay for his school fees, which shows his great love for education. His mother had remarried and left him under the care of aged grandparents who could barely support him, but this did not deter his quest for learning. During his youth, he is known to have been interested in mechanical devices, doing many experiments and building many devices (Newton). He is known to have built a mill model, clocks and kites among other devices, which he experimented in his neighborhood, with some of the experiments greatly frightening his neighbors. He drew many drawings and architectura l diagrams on the window edges and walls of his Woolsthorpe home which included drawings of men, animals, birds and also plants. During this time, he is known to have been influenced by the book; ‘mysteries of nature’ by John Bates (Newton). He had his early education at Skillington and Stoke

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Earthquake's Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Earthquake's - Essay Example The plates interact at their boundaries (margins) or edges. There are various types of plate margins which include; diverging, converging and transform faults (kearey, Klepesis and Vine, 2009). Converging plate boundary Converging occurs when two plates travel towards each other. When the plates converge, different types of margins are formed depending on the boundary; the boundary can either be between two continental plates, oceanic plates or either one of each. One type of convergent margin occurs when a continent meets another continent along the convergent line where they crumple upwards and downwards as the lithosphere thickens in a collision zone. Another type of convergent margin takes place when one or both plates are oceanic where by one plate typically slide underneath the other plate sinking into the asthenosphere where water that is released from the wet rocks of the seafloor advances the formation of the magma (kearey, Klepesis and Vine, 2009). Diverging plate boundary Diverge is also known as rifting or spreading centers. Diverging occurs when two plates move apart from each other and can occur in either continental or oceanic crust. When plates diverge from each other a new ocean may form in the widening rift, an example of this is the Red sea. When oceanic crust diverts (splits apart) the result is known as a midocean ridge (kearey, Klepesis and Vine, 2009). Transform faults plate boundary The transform plate boundaries are the locations where plates slide past each other. A crack zone that normally forms a transform plate boundary is well known as a transform fault. The transform faults are mostly common in the ocean floors (ocean basins) where many of them run perpendicularly to the midocean ridges (Kearey, Klepesis and Vine, 2009). Why earthquakes are common along plate margins Earthquakes occur mostly at the plate margins because under the plates there is much friction and the plates are constantly bouncing off each other. The plate’ s margin material is not as sturdy and is found near the molten part. The earthquakes occur normally near the fault lines (this is where the plates are normally separated). In the fault line two plates confine together until much pressure is formed and they are forced to grind away from each other. The lateral fault line happens frequently and within different magnitudes, an example of a lateral fault line is the San Andreas Fault in California. How the earth moves when it quakes and shakes When the earth quakes and shakes sudden movements on the grounds occur. The quakes are mostly provoked by movements along the faults, landslides, bomb blasts and volcanic eruptions. When a quake occurs, the surface of the earth forms into waves that move across; these waves are considered to be pretty spectacular and extremely destructive. During a quake the seismic waves move about in all directions just like the sound waves (Kusky, 2005). Events that cause the earth to quake and shake Earthquak e is the ground shaking that is caused by an abrupt slip on a fault. When pressure in the earth’s outer layer pushes the sides of the faults together causing stress to build up and the rocks to slip all of a sudden discharging energy in waves that travel through the earth’s crust causing the shaking that is felt during an earthquake. Earthquake measurements Earthquakes are recorded by seismometers up to great distances as the seismic waves are

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Cellular pathology 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cellular pathology 1 - Essay Example The eggs of  E. vermicularis which can be seen in the picture are roughly 25 x 60 um in size. The organism has a thin shell and one of the sides is compressed. The eggs and shell of organism have taken up the pink dye which makes them recognizable. The presence of E. vermicularis in the appendix can give the symptoms of acute appendicitis (Wiebe, 1991, p.g. 336). The appendix is a vestigial organ present in the human body. The inflammation of this organ leads to appendicitis. Acute appendicitis is one of most common diseases that lead to inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Acute appendicitis is caused due to the obstruction of the lumen, diminished blood supply, pinworm infections caused by Enterobius vermicularis, bacterial infections or due to ischemic damage to mucosal lining of organ (Becker and Hofler, 2002, pg.777). The best described pathogenesis of appendicitis is an obstruction in the appendiceal lumen. The obstruction can be due to lodging of foreign body, lymphoid hyperplasia, fecolith or tumours. The pathogenesis of appendicitis can be understood by the course that the disease takes. In the primary stage, there is obstruction of the lumen which causes accumulation of fluid leading to elevation of intralumin al pressure and lastly resulting in distension of lumina. Suppurative appendicitis occurs due to increased intraluminal pressure which increases the capillary perfusion leading to venous obstruction and hence causing arterial compromise. These crucial events lead to ischemia of the mucosal surface and allow bacterial infestation. As the disease progresses, it causes mural infection which is characterized by oedematous thickening of the appendicular walls. When observed grossly the appendix appears hyperaemic and enlarged. If this progressive condition is not managed surgically it may lead to perforation and gangrene. Gangrenous appendicitis may present as friable serosa with green or black discoloration. If

Monday, August 26, 2019

John Locke's Notion of Money Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

John Locke's Notion of Money - Essay Example He bases this idea on the definition of labor. According to Locke, â€Å"The labor of his body, and the work of his hands, we may say, are properly his† (V.27). This means that if one labors for something, that something naturally becomes his property. Therefore, labor determines property. This property then is assumed to be useful and â€Å"the intrinsic value of things†¦depends only on their usefulness to the life of man† (V.37). Therefore, property has value, and this value can only be represented by money. Therefore, if one has money, even if the property is gone, its value stays with its rightful owner. Furthermore, this means that since money does not decay, then it does not lose its value. In fact, money does not only have value but it also serves as a pledge or an agreement among people that they will honor its value through â€Å"mutual consent† (V.47). Lastly, according to Locke, money is a means to â€Å"enlarge† man’s possessions or property (V.48). Since money became a means to exchange useful goods and since different industries developed to give man different amounts of possessions, money became a means to own larger and larger property. ... If we rely on barter, we cannot exactly know how much of one thing can be justly or rightfully exchanged with another. Therefore, for Aristotle, â€Å"all good must†¦be measured by some one thing† and that only money can serve as a standard or it can provide the means to an equal exchange of goods (V.3). The idea of equal exchange is based on Aristotle’s idea of justice, which is the topic of the whole Chapter 5 of the Nicomachean Ethics. For Aristotle, the reason why money should be used as a basis of equality is that it is fixed and more stable than other criteria. For example, nobody can exactly say who is virtuous and whether virtuous people must receive more that those who are not. Money, however, is fixed and will give its owner the same value whether he is â€Å"more virtuous† than another person. Aristotle also states that money is â€Å"not always worth the same; yet it tends to be steadier† (V.3). This means that the value of money may chang e but it is still a better mode of exchange because it is not perishable. Moreover, money is â€Å"our surety,† which means that money is a guarantee or a pledge that its value will be honored by all men as it is â€Å"fixed by agreement† (V.3). This also means that even if now we do not need to use a product that money can buy, the fact that we have money means that we can still use this product in the future when we need it. Aristotle and John Locke on Money Aristotle and John Locke both have similar and different opinions on money. Nevertheless, Aristotle’s views seem more viable. Both philosophers believe that money is more or less a practical mode of exchange. According to John Locke, money does not decay like perishable goods such as corn and

Sunday, August 25, 2019

HR Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

HR - Assignment Example A work life Program is a critical element of the total rewards of an organization in its effort to retain, motivate and attract employees. Recently, the organization has been losing employees due to inadequate planning regarding their employees benefits. High employee turnaround may reduce the performance of an organization by increasing reducing quality as well as increasing training costs. A work life projects training is aimed at training employees need to balance between healthy management of work life and life outside work. Essentially, it is considerably challenging to meet the entirely the requirements at work as well as at workplace. Therefore, employees require an initiative or a process that guide them to ensure that they remain healthy and safe (Harris 34). The training project can be categorized into various categories including when an individual works, how much one works, where one works. The program is expected to empower employees with the necessary skills to balance the objectives of the organization with that of employees. Sometimes it is very challenging to balance the balance the goals of an organization. One of the main purposes of an organization is to maximize profit. Sometimes, some employers find it challenging to incur additional expenditures that are not directly related to the organization’s operational costs (Harris 34). The point of this training is to provide employees as well as potential employees with skills on how they can provide initiatives to the employees that will help them remain productive in their workplaces as well as in their personal life. In addition, the program will help employees effectively manage their time, health and safety to ensure that neither their work performance nor their home performance will be compromised. At the end of the training, learners are expected to

Saturday, August 24, 2019

NET Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

NET - Essay Example In academic circles with the frequent need of large quantities of information the use of databases has become popular and can be seen in the linkage that they maintain with databases in addition to the libraries that they still maintain. In short we can call the databases virtual libraries. The databases that I usually use are Medscape, Medline, PubMed, BioMed, and eMedicine. On the Internet it is the search engine that uses a set of software programs to identify the request and search the databases and provide the outcome of the search (search engines). Put in simple terms traditionally an individual went to a library and searched for information and brought the information back. The search engine does exactly this by searching for information based on the search terms given and makes available the information that it has found on the databases. The first step in my search for research resources on the internet was to use the most common search engines of Google and Yahoo. This gave me access to some databases, but found that I could do a better job in searching for resources on the net by selecting more academic oriented search engines and so I shifted like Academic Reference and Research Index. (Searching the Internet). The search terms used are crucial in getting the required information and the peed at which the information is located. Initially I found that my search terms were inadequate and provided me with information I did not require or I was flooded with information, which I had to shift to. This made refining of the search terms or queries a requirement. Refining a search term means altering or adding to the set of search terms employed. (Refining a Query). I exploited the search terms that gave me the information and amended the search terms that proved to be not satisfactory. The changes that I have adopted in my methods of researching the Net for information have made me more successful in securing the information that I want

Friday, August 23, 2019

Product Costing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Product Costing - Essay Example This implies that, the cost of a finished unit in inventory will include direct materials and labor, and both fixed and variable manufacturing overheads. It is notable that, absorption costing is the most preferred method for external reporting as per the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Absorption costing is fundamental in tracing the variable costs of production and the fixed costs attributed to the production of the product (Riahi, 2001). It is imperative to note that, absorption costing is dissimilar from the other costing methods since it takes into account fixed manufacturing overhead (the counting expenses ) such as factory rent, utilities and amortization (Riahi, 2001). Absorption costing forms three different types of costing, which include job order costing, process and ABC costing. Job order costing Considering the job order costing, the costs are assigned to the product in Batches or lots (Avis & Killick, 2009). Job order method is used in companies that o ffer bespoke or distinctive products or services. It is common in service industries that, serve customers with inimitable needs. Such services may include tracing of the number of hours spent on each individual client’s account (Avis & Killick, 2009). Fundamentally, the manufacturing cost categories include direct materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead. All these jobs are counted as inventory until the good or product is sold. It is essential to note that, the job order cost system requires the manufacturing costs recorded in a document called the job cost sheet. This sheet provides a detailed record of the cost incurred to complete a specific job. Consider the following illustrations that, indicates how three kinds of manufacturing costs are allotted in a job order cost system. Direct materials job cost sheet Direct Labor manufacturing overhead Fixed overhead rate It is noticeable that, direct materials and direct labor costs are allotted to jobs differently tha n manufacturing overhead costs. For instance, the direct costs, requires keeping of track of the costs of specific jobs with a set of records referred to as the source documents. Essentially a source document is a hard copy document similar to the receipt issued after payment (Horngren, Datar & Rajan, 2012). However most companies use paperless system where information is stored in electronic databases. On the other hand, manufacturing overhead comprises of the costs that cannot be directly traced to particular jobs. It is imperative to note that, on assigning these jobs, accountants should use a predetermined overhead rate based on some secondary allotment measure and cost driver. The material requisition form refers to the form that lists the quantity and cost of the direct materials used in a particular job. This is normally done before materials are used on a job. The fundamental purpose of this form is control the physical outflow of materials from inventory and into production . Similarly, a direct labor time tickets refers to a source document that shows how much time a laborer spends on a range of jobs per week. On the other hand, job cost sheet is a document that gives a summary of all the costs incurred on a specific job. Process costing Process costing refers to a costing method where all costs are

How will technology and social media influence or change recruitment Essay

How will technology and social media influence or change recruitment and talent management in the future - Essay Example Social media has become a viable way of quick interaction between the recruiters and the candidates. The quality of staff members and their services in the hotel industry has a direct impact on the bottom line. Employees serve as the frontline brand ambassadors and their performance drives the true competitive advantage of the organization. To succeed, the employers need to recruit enthusiastic, accountable, and competent employees that should be kept motivated and engaged. To achieve this, many innovative firms are seeing the potential of improving the recruiting strategies with social media (Headworth, n.d.). The rapid advancement of technology and growth of the use of social media will bring drastic changes in the practices of recruitment and talent management in the hotel industry in the future. Historically, rates of employee turnover within the hotel industry have been remarkably high; turnover rates have been touching 50 per cent. â€Å"The American Hotel and Lodging Association has estimated that the turnover cost per employee is a minimum of $4100 per employee, and the American Management Association pegs this number at 30% of an employee’s annual salary† (Cobb, 2013). The high rate of employee turnover in the hotel industry can be partly attributed to lack of opportunities of training and development and inappropriate talent management that has led the employees to attrition and dissatisfaction. To combat the retention issues, hospitality organizations are in need of professional, motivated, committed, and developed graduates that would help them attain their immediate and long-term goals (Scott and Revis, 2008). The trends are expected to change for the better in the future. The continued growth of social media and technology has made room for the worki ng of more team activities and knowledge work remotely. Retention in the hotel

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Lymphatic System Essay Example for Free

The Lymphatic System Essay A. What was the purpose of doing this exercise? The purpose of this exercise was to learn about the lymphatic system and its components. We learned about lymph, structure and function of lymph nodes, T-Cells, B-Cells, and Macrophages, and differentiating between antigens and antibodies. Exercise 1: Microscopic Anatomy of Lymphatic Structures A. Sketch of Reticular Connective Tissue Slide (Lymph Node). Describe the structures you observed on the slide. B. Sketch of Spleen Slide: Describe the structures you observed on the slide. C. Sketch of Tonsil Slide: Describe the structures you observed on the slide. D. Sketch of Thymus Slide: Describe the structures you observed on the slide. Exercise 2: Immunity and the Immune Respose A. Describe what happened to the red and green food coloring after 45 minutes. The food coloring spread throughout some of the dish. B. Which sera was an antigen in section 2 of the dish? Describe what you observed in section 2 of the dish. After 3 days, there was no visible line of precipitation evident and therefore the result is inconclusive. C. Which sera was the antigen in the â€Å"unknown† sample used in section 3 of the dish? Describe what you observed in section 3 of the dish. After 3 days, there was no visible line of precipitation evident and therefore the result is inconclusive. Picture of the Agar Plate After 3 Days Questions Exercise 1: Microscopic Anatomy of Lymphatic Structures A. How are lymph, lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes related? Lymph, lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes are all part of the lymphatic system. Lymph vessels carry lymph throughout the body. Throughout the vessles are lymph nodes which fight infection. B. What are the two major functions of the lymph nodes? They clean and filter lymph before it goes back to the blood. They produce antibodies and lymphocytes. C. What are the two functions of the spleen? It protects the body and helps to produce and store blood cells. D. What is the function of the tonsils? They protect the body from harmful germs. E. What are the structural similarities found in lymph nodes, spleen and tonsils? They all have a capsule and are rounded organs with an internal parenchyma of lymphoid cells. Exercise 2: Immunity and the Immune Response A. Explain what is meant by â€Å"memory† as a characteristic of the immune response. When the body comes in contact with a harmful antigen, it has a primary response, which remembers the antigen by creating memory cells. By the secondary response, the memory cells will counteract the antigen. B. How does our immune response distinguish between our own cells and foreign invaders? A major histocompatibility complex is at the surface of each cell in our body. It is what recognizes if something is foreign or not, and lets the immune system know. B. What are lymphocytes and where are they produced? Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that protect the body from infection. They are produced in the bone marrow. C. Distinguish between an antigen and an antibody. An antigen is a foreign material that enters the body, and an antibody is what recognizes the foreign material and helps fight it.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Project management methodologies

Project management methodologies Part 1 A methodology is a set of guidelines or principles that can be tailored and applied to a specific situation (Jason P. Charvat, 2003). IT Project Management Methodology is characterized as a collection of methods to perform highly structure planning, scheduling and scoping of IT project in order to deliver welcoming products or services to clients (Jason P. Charvat, 2003). A software development methodology refers to the framework that is used to structure, plan, and control the process of developing an information system (Selecting a Development Approach, 2008). A successful project management methodology aims to structure the processes of leading project to a satisfied end by undertaking certain right perspectives and logical sequences of processes within the project development life cycle. A reasonable project management methodology is crucial to bridge the cap between rough project plans and detailed technical matters. According to the figures from KPMG International, 81% of companies reported an increase in the number of new IT projects in the past 12 months(2006), and 88% reported an increase in the complexity of projects (Ann Bednarz Denise Dubie, 2006). Generally speaking, IT project is relatively more complex and technical than in other disciplines. During the life cycle of IT project, the methodology is used to monitor the status of progress at each phase. At the same time, due to diverse nature of information technology project, acceptable IT project management methodology ensures the entire project on the right track and consistency of process, and reviews the further possible improvements by evaluating current strategies and progresses. Regardless, clear IT management methodology is a critical process to manage the project activities precisely and greatly in crease the odds of project success (Stephen B. Page, 2002). Information technology project management methodology commonly consists of five major components, which are initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing of project (Kathy Schwalbe, 2006). The five phases are interrelated, and each of these components represents a specific phase of project development life cycle. For example, planning processes involve several comprehensive aspects of the project, such as schedule management plan, scope management plan, cost estimates, possible training and procurement plans, and so on, defining each related knowledge area at that point in time (Joseph Phillips, 2004 Kathy Schwalbe, 2006). From the big picture, the executing processes require the most resources and time, following by the planning processes (Kathy Schwalbe, 2006). Software development is a phase of software production. It includes all stages of activities to develop software which meets the needs of clients and potential user groups. The term Software development is different from project management, as software development usually falls under the execution phase of project management. In other word, software development is a subset of project management. However, they still have some other overlaps. For software development lifecycle, it still incorporates some sections from planning processes, monitoring and controlling processes. In addition, the software development cannot be self-sufficient and independent from project management as the development process is the inner cycle of IT project. Furthermore, the software development methodologies and IT project management methodologies are also interlinked but differ from each other. The aim of software development methodologies is to provide a framework to assist and clarify each individual ph ase of development lifecycle from the start to completion, and improve overall performance of software product. Whereas IT project management methodologies focus on the entire procedures of activities involved in the project life, an IT project itself not only contains certain amount of software development tasks but also other correlated preliminaries and later stage finalizations. For instance, an IT project could be split into different streams, deployment component is part of the project and it operates under the project management methodologies. The software development methodologies only monitor the stage of software development, but IT project management methodologies are also employed to assist the running of the whole project (Kurt Bittner Ian Spence, 2007). In general, IT project management methodologies widely spread on the project management template. They are the guidelines to assist software development kind of technical activities and planning stage kind of administr ation activities. Part 2 The efficient delivery of IT projects means the project is capable of using optimized amount of identified and allocated resources to deliver products or services to clients. It mainly focuses on the integrated resource use by the project whereby time and budget are two indicators. The minimized acquisition cost of project from start to completion defines the basis of efficient delivery. The term Triple Constrains is defined as scope, time and budget. The scope factor is used to measure the effectiveness of the project. The effective delivery of IT project suggests that the project provides desired level of quality and enables clients to use the products or services effectively (Wim Van Grembergen, 2001). The use of IT project management methodologies is considered important in the efficient and effective delivery of IT projects. In general terms, the balance of scope, time and budget is always crucial for IT projects success. It helps to reduce the cost of a project by accomplishing more workload with lower amount of resources and a shorter time frame without any expense of quality (Stephen B. Page, 2002). This goal is achieved only by applying appropriate methodologies to project management. Moreover, a clear methodology ensures the entire operation of project is following predetermined sequences of processes and enables monitoring the project in terms of cost, timing and schedule (Jason P. Charvat, 2003). Since the operation of project is capable of optimize using allocated resources, the project maintains a good balance status in terms of time and budget. Budget control, meeting deadlines and fulfill the general customer requirements are essential to reach the scope of high qualit y project (Stephen B. Page, 2002). At the same time, a clear definition of scope is very important to successful completion of project and positive feedbacks from users in order to accomplish the aims of effective delivery of IT projects. A standard IT project management methodology enables different parties in the project team to unify interdepartmental activities. Although it is inevitable to encounter conflicts and possible confusion between team members during the project life-cycle stages, an appropriate methodology should be applied to resolve the technical or non-technical conflicts by certain approaches. For instance, the methodology authorizes project manager to acquire sufficient information about the conflicts by looking through the conflicting parties point of views (Stephen B. Page, 2002). If the conflict is a technical issue, the resolution process could be done by involving both parties and a technical expert to search for an ideal resolution which is indentified and agreed by all parties (Stephen B. Page, 2002). However, for non-technical conflicts, project manager or other senior managers should attempt to help it out as soon as possible via different ways (Stephen B. Page, 2002). As mentioned above, reduction of internal conflicts is able to cut back the opportunity cost, which has assisting effects on efficient and effective delivery of IT project. In general, conflicts would result in consuming extra resources of the project, but it could still be beneficial to the project as the resolutions may produce more effective ways of performing tasks (Manjeet Singh), or possibly reduce the risks of failure. Furthermore, an early introduction of formal IT project management methodologies adds critical values to the project itself. It is extremely important to clarify all intended processes, procedures and documents required in each phase before kick-off (Stephen B. Page, 2002). Early stage of methodology notification provides a roadmap to all stakeholders. This produces synergistic effect, which could possibly minimize the total amount of resources committed to the project (Harold Kerzner, 2004). In addition, the methodologies are enhanced through the valuable insights from the pre-discussion at the beginning of the project (Harold Kerzner, 2004). Otherwise, delay in obtaining the information about methodology leads to unnecessary waste of time and efforts. It is unclear for each party involved in the project to produce demanded deliverables. Possible restart or backtrack to initial start point would be required in order to reproduce intended outcomes. To sum up, appropriate use of IT project management methodologies bring various kinds of benefits while undertaking IT project. Project managers also need to aware of the proper time to introduce the methodologies to team members. Bibliography Ann Bednarz Denise Dubie, November 15 2006, Project management software can curb IT inefficiencies, Network World, viewed 18 March 2010, . Harold Kerzner, 2004, Advanced project management: best practices on implementation, John Wiley Sons, Inc.,Hoboken, New Jersey, p. 116. Jason P. Charvat, 2003, Project management methodologies: selecting, implementing, and supporting methodologies and processes for projects, John Wiley Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, p.3. pp.10-11. Joseph Phillips, 2004, IT project management: on track from start to finish, The McGraw-Hill Companies, pp.459-406. Kathy Schwalbe, 2006, Information Technology Project Management Fourth Edition, Thomson Course Technology, p. 72, p. 95, p.110. Kurt Bittner, Ian Spence, 2007, Managing iterative software development projects, Pearson Education, Inc, p.550. Manjeet Singh, Resolving conflicts, ProjectMinds, viewed 21 Mar 2010, . Stephen B. Page, Aug 14 2002, the key to becoming a successful project manager, TechRepublic, viewed 21 Mar 2010, . U.S Department of Health Human Services, March 27 2008, SELECTING A DEVELOPMENT APPROACH, U.S Department of Health Human Services, viewed 17 March 2010, . Wim Van Grembergen, 2001, Information Technology Evaluation Methods Management, Idea Group Publishing, p. 214. Project Management Methodologies Project Management Methodologies LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction: In this chapter the literary information of this research are analysed and discussed leading to the unanswered question which this study answers through the research and data analysis. This chapter is analysed thorough a research done using numerous books and journals related to this research area. Project management (Woodward, 2007) is a key to companies adopting business improvement methodologies such as Six Sigma, which improve their efficiency and competitiveness in the market. Project management is a core competency for a company to maximize the effect of the methodologies to be used for the research. In the past Organizations have been mainly focused on the development of their products lifecycle and ensured that their project management practitioners have had the required knowledge in the form of procedures, tools and techniques. Companies have sought to improve their project management competency through structured training programs. In this chapter the project management methodologies used for developing the project in an organisation is discussed in this chapter. The process of project management methodology in a project is analysed in depth based on PRINCE2 methodology and the process of Project Management department is evaluated by investigating project management department in Infosys technologies limited. The project management team roles are investigated and their responsibility in a project is analysed by the author in this chapter. 2.2 Project Management Methodologies: Kerzner (2005) defines a methodology is a set of guidelines that can be applied to a specific situation during a project. In a project environment, these guidelines might be a list of things to do. A methodology is of a specific approach, templates, forms and even checklists used over the project life cycle.The project methodology is the work of all team members involved in the project throughout the life cycle of a project to for the project success. The project management methodologies (OGC, 2005) are: PRINCE2 PMBoK Method123 Tensteps COBIT PRINCE2 is a true framework developed and instituted in the UK under the Office of Government Commerce (OGC) a government agency; System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), the classic waterfall approach and Solutions-based Project Methodology and a simplified approach for the consultants to work for the clients. The Ten Step methodology comes to project management frameworks and appear to be only two or three that are generally applicable. The Development Methodologies, i.e. management of the technology including information technology and software development in particular are suitable to complete the project. The process includes the project management methodologies and classic building development by a way of comparison. The Office of Government Commerce (OGC) adopt the principle of making its copyright materials such as PRINCE2 widely available to use for developing the project, the only cost incurred is the purchasing of the manual. OGC has encouraged supplier organisations to provide a competitive range of tools, training and other services to support the users. With the development of PRINCE2, OGC is keen to ensure the best package of products and services that are available to the users. OGC has also established collaboration partnerships with a number of organisations specifically to provide support for PRINCE2 and the related areas of Programme Management and the Management of Risk. (OGC, 2005) PMBoK, Method123 and COBIT (Lewis, 2002) focus on the technology and focus more on a generic project management approach. The methodology to use based on the organizational requirements is of Light and Heavy methodologies, the project size and complexity will affect the type of methodology to be selected. Managing the project and managing the technology is by applying the appropriate methodology, project managers are likely to deliver the solutions based on the client requirements. The two types of methodologies are: Project management methodologies and Development methodologies. The project framework of project management methodologies consists of eight chapters as follows: (Lewis, 2002) 1. Understanding Project Methodologies 2. Project Methodologies Explained 3. Project Management Frameworks 4. Development Methodology Selection and Utilization 5. Implementing Project Methodologies 6. Supporting the Methodology 7. Project Templates and Techniques 8. Project Processes and Trends A methodology (Nicholas, 2001) of managing projects observed that projects have common characteristics that can be formalized into a structural process to manage projects more effectively. The project development process and the development methodology are the means of getting from segment to segment. The methodology provides a means for selecting the degree of project management appropriate to the project. Each phase can typically be brought to closure in some logical way before the next project phase begins and each phase results in discrete deliverables which provide the starting point for the next phase. Cost and schedule estimates: plans, requirements and specifications are evaluated at the end of each phase, sometimes before deciding whether to continue with the project. Adopting an incorrect methodology or having no project framework in an organisation might cause a: (Pinto, 2000) †¢ Schedule and cost slippages, †¢ Miscommunication within the team, †¢ Wasting time on administrative tasks that have no purpose, †¢ Reliance on technical wizardry to get projects done, and †¢ Project management burnout. The project management department get the message across senior management which briefly explains the capability maturity model (CMM) and its five levels in it as sets of strategies for improvement. The CMM levels are: Initial, Repeatable, Defined, Managed and Optimized. The project management methodologies take a leading role in a company and it needs to be good in a few areas: (Cleland and King, 1998) †¢ Project management philosophy is firmly entrenched †¢ Project management is a core competency †¢ The company is focused on making projects succeed †¢ Processes and infrastructure are in place †¢ Effective reporting is established †¢ Both project methodology and development methodologies are well documented †¢ Project staff is provided continuous training †¢ Project information is communicated continuously †¢ Projects are monitored against performance †¢ Quality and delivery excellence are built in †¢ Projects are routinely audited Different methodology proponents use different labels, perhaps to differentiate their products. In all the methodologies described while the first several items in the list are dealt with, the remainder is absent. It is almost as though the author was interrupted in mid flight and never returned to the same spot. Similarly, some methodologies are mentioned but not described and others are described but not listed in explanatory tables. (Meredith and Mantel, 2005) 2.3 PRINCE2 Project Management Methodology: CCTA (1996) defines a PRINCE2 as â€Å"a management environment for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to a specified Business Case is needed to produce a unique and predefined result at a pre-specified time using predetermined resources†. A PRINCE2 project consists of the following characteristics: (Wearne, 2006) A finite and defined life cycle, Defined and measurable business products, A corresponding set of activities to achieve the business products, A defined amount of resources, An organisation structure, with defined responsibilities, and to manage the project. A PRINCE2 project is driven by its business case which describes the organisations justification, commitment and rationale for the projects outcome. The business case is regularly reviewed with the projects progress to ensure the business objectives, which may well change during the life of the project till the objectives are met. The projects are of different groups of people involved, including the customer, one or more suppliers and the user. PRINCE2 is designed to provide a common language across all the people involved in the project. Bringing customers and suppliers together generally involves contracts and contract management. The aspects of PRINCE2 recognise the need to provide projects with necessary controls and breakpoints to work successfully within a contractual framework. (Burke, 1999) PRINCE2 (Colin, 2005) is a method for managing projects and it helps to work out who should be involved and what will be their responsibilities to complete the project successfully. It gives a set of processes to work through and explains what information should be gathered along the way. PRINCE2 is a process-based approach to project management. The processes define the management activities to be carried out during the project. PRINCE2 describes the components that are applied within the appropriate processes and recommends a number of techniques to be utilised for the process. The PRINCE2 process model consists of eight distinct management processes and the activities from setting the project on the right track through controlling and managing the projects progress through to project completion. The Planning process is triggered by many of the other processes. The key to successful use of the process model is in tailoring it to suit the needs of the individual project. (Bradley, 2005) 2.3.1 Directing a Project (DP): This process is performed by the Project Board (Project Manager, Project coordinator and project officer) and describes the direction and key decision making of the project. This is the only process performed by the project board. Whenever a decision is made, the Project Board will the Business Case, Project Plan and Risk Log as the basis for that decision. (Bradley, 2005) The DP processes are managed by the project board throughout the project from start-up to project closure. The DP process has five major steps: (Baguley, 2004) Authorising the preparation of a project plan and business case for the project Approving the project go-ahead Checking that the project remains justifiable at key points in the project life cycle Monitoring progress and giving advice as required Ensuring that the project comes to a controlled close 2.3.2 Starting up a Project (SU): SU (Bradley, 2005) gives an idea about the project whether it is viable and worthwhile to process. It is classed as pre-project work and includes the activities with definition and appointment of the Project Management Team Preparation with a brief idea about the project. According to (Baguley, 2004) starting up a project is a pre-project process with five objectives: Design and appoint the project management team Ensure that the aims of the project are known Decide on the approach which will be taken within the project to provide a solution Define the customers quality expectations Plan the work needed to draw up the PRINCE2 between customer and supplier. 2.3.3 Initiating a Project (IP): This process prepares the information on whether there is sufficient justification to proceed with the project, establishes a sound management basis for the project and creates a detailed plan for as much of the project as management are in a position to authorise. (Baguley, 2004) IP is the first stage of the project. It lays the groundwork for the project and creates the Project Initiation Document (PID). The information contained within the PID expands on that contained within the project brief and will define in detail the project that will be delivered including standards which will met or maintained the Business Case and Project Plan. The following activities are all carried out during IP prior to assembling the PID. Refining the Outline Business Case and risks with information gathered or forecast during the creation of the Project Plan Identifying and agreeing an appropriate level of control for the project and defining the project communication plan creation of the project files, the Issue Log and Lessons Learned Log. If the project is managed in stages, the next Stage Plan will be created when assembling the PID. (Bradley, 2005) 2.3.4 Controlling a Stage (CS): CS covers the day-to-day management of the project and it is where the Project Manager does their job. This involves: Handing out work to the teams, Monitoring that the work is progressing within tolerance and to the correct level of quality, Creation of Highlight Reports to send to the Project Board at a frequency agreed when the controls were set during IP, Risk management, Logging and analysing the impact of issues, and Resolving any problems or deviations within tolerance. (Bradley, 2005) 2.3.5 Managing Stage Boundaries (SB): In order (Bradley, 2005) to maintain control over the project: larger, complex or more risky projects should be divided into stages. Each planned stage is approved by the Project Board before it is delivered. The Project Manager will: Create the next Stage Plan Update the Project Plan, Business Case, and Risk Log And any other information as appropriate Prepare an End Stage Report for presentation to the Project Board Seek authorisation from the Project Board to deliver the next Stage Plan 2.3.6 Managing Product Delivery (MP): MP (Bradley, 2005) covers the work of the Team Manager and a role dedicated to work with the specialist teams ensuring that their work is completed within any constraints defined within the Work package agreement. In simple terms, MP covers: Accepting the work from the Project Manager, Creating a Team Plan if appropriate, Getting the work done, Reporting Checkpoints at an agreed frequency, Carrying out any necessary quality checks, Escalate the issues which has the work package tolerances, and Returning the completed work back to the Project Manager. 2.3.7 Planning (PL): PL (Bradley, 2005) is triggered whenever the Project Manager or Team Manager appropriate and creates a plan. The process describes the production of a plan including: The initial identification of the required plan format Identifying and describing the products that must be created together with any additional activities dependencies Estimation and the scheduling of events Creation of the plan narrative. 2.3.8 Closing a Project (CP): CP (Bradley, 2005) ensures that everything has been delivered to the customers satisfaction and ties-up any lose ends. It also ensures that the products produced are handed over to those responsible for their on going and future operation. All of the closure activities are subject to the Project Board confirmation that they are happy for the project to finish. Once the project closure has been completed the following information will have been created: End Project Report; Including the Post Project Review Plan; Follow-on Actions Recommendations and for each open Issue. For those currently open risks which may impact has been delivered during its operational use with lessons learned report; both positive and negative lessons and Project file archive. The Post Project Review Plan will identify appropriate times for measures of benefit achievement. 2.4 PRINCE2 in an Organisation: PRINCE2 (OGC, 2005) provides benefits to the managers and directors of a project and to an organisation through the controllable use of resources and the ability to manage business and project risk more effectively. PRINCE2 proven best practice in project management and it is widely recognised to provide a common language for all participants in a project in an organisation. PRINCE2 (Scott, 2002) encourages formal recognition of responsibilities within a project and focuses on what a project to deliver. PRINCE2 provides projects with a controlled and organised start, middle and end; Regular reviews of progress against plan and against the Business Case flexible decision point and management control of any deviations from the plan. The existence of a viable Business Case is confirmed at the start of the project, and verified throughout the project to form the basis of every decision made by the Project Board. The Business Case is a statement of reasons for doing the project and the benefits of carrying out the project balanced against a summary of the cost, timescales and risk involved in achieving the benefits (Turner, 2004). If the Business Case is no longer considered viable then the Project Manager will ask to close the project. The involvement of management and stakeholders at the right time and place during the process of a project plays an important role for the success of a project. Managers using PRINCE2 are able to establish terms of reference as a pre-requisite to the start of a project. A defined structure for delegation, authority and communication; divide the project into manageable stages for more accurate planning; ensure resource commitment from management is part of any approval to proceed; provide regular but brief management reports and keep meetings with management and stakeholders to a minimum but at the vital points in the project. Those who will be directly involved with using the results of a project are able to participate in all the decision-making on a project; involved in day-to-day progress and provide quality checks throughout the project and ensure their requirements are being adequately satisfied. (Kerzner, 2003) PRINCE2 suggests the projects that should be broken down into stages and the sub-processes dictate how each individual stage should be controlled. It includes the way in which the process is authorized and received. It also specifies the way in which progress should be monitored and how the highlights of the progress should be reported to the project board. A means for capturing and assessing project issues is suggested together with the way in which corrective action should be taken. This covers the things that should be done at the end of a project. Project is formally de-commissioned and follow on actions are identified in the project itself be formally evaluated. (Kerzner, 2003) A good project management (Maylor, 2005) method guides the project through a controlled, well-managed, visible set of activities to achieve the desired results. PRINCE2 provides the projects with: A controlled and organised start, middle and end Regular reviews of progress against plans and against the Business Case Flexible decision points Automatic management control of any deviations from the plan The involvement of management and stakeholders at the right time during the project Good communication channels between the project management team and the rest of the organisation Agreement on the required quality at the outset and continuous monitoring against those requirements. PRINCE2 (CCTA, 1996) is designed to be used on all type of projects in any environment. It contains a complete set of concepts and project management processes that are the minimum requirements for a properly run and managed project. The way in which it is applied to each project will vary considerably and tailoring the method to suit the circumstances of a particular project is critical to its successful use. PRINCE2 projects are always focused on delivering pre-defined products to meet a specified Business Case. It enables the project to capture and retain a definition of the business benefits that are the driving force behind the project itself. The customer and supplier environment assumes that there will be a customer who will specify requirement and pay for the project. A supplier will provide resources and skills to create that product successfully. The customer and supplier normally come from separately managed areas. Stakeholders have an interest and will be impacted by the project with its outcomes. The stakeholders include: (Healey, 2003) Customers, who have commissioned the work and will benefit from the end results on the Project Board by Project Executive, User(s) will be impacted by the outcome as they will use or operate the final product and represent on the Project, Board the Senior User(s), the customer and user may be the same group of people, Suppliers provide specialist resource or skills to the project with goods and services represented on the Project Board by the Senior Suppliers, Suppliers appoint Sub-contractors to provide products or services to them. PRINCE2 (CCTA, 1996) offers a series of plan levels that can be tailored to the size and complexity of a project. Each level of plan consist of the needs and recommend planning technique based planning, but the planning process includes the identification of activities and their dependencies. PRINCE2 facilitate the principle of management by exception and provide each level of management with information allowing them to assess progress to make appropriate decisions based on accurate information. 2.5 Project management methodologies risk management process: PRINCE2 (Bradley, 2005) defines risk management in two phases, risk analysis and risk management. Risk analysis covers the identification and evaluation of risk through the identification and selection of appropriate responses for the process. Risk management is of planning and the selected actions for monitoring and reporting on their status. Quality within PRINCE2 begins by establishing the Customers Quality Expectations and agreeing associated Acceptance. These will be detailed within a Project Quality Plan together with any external standards which will need to be met. It will also detail the change control processes and will contain the Configuration Management Plan. The Project Quality (Shtub and Bard, 2003)Plan defines how the project will achieve the required quality. Configuration Management defines how the assets of the project are identified, protected and controlled. It also identifies how it links with other PRINCE2 components and techniques to describe the role. The Configuration Management plan is identified within the Project Quality Plan. PRINCE2 emphasises the need for the controlled management of change and this is enforced with a change control technique plus the identification of the processes and responsibilities for change control. Change is inevitable and often beneficial to uncontrolled change causes project failure. Controlling change ensures that all changes are documented and analysed. Changes will be authorised only when their impact is fully understood and deemed to be beneficial or acceptable to the project. PRINCE2 is a generic project management (Baguley, 2004) method and recognised for using different techniques. Product Based Planning describes a framework, which can be applied to any type of project. PRINCE2recognises that most organisations will have their own defined change control processes to recommend an approach that treats each change request during the project development. The change control technique identifies the process and responsibilities for handling a change requests from its initial entry onto the Issue Log through its analysis and implementation. Bradley (2005) defines a number of activities which must be carried out in order for the project to be defined, developed and closed. PRINCE2 consists number of components which contain further detail on specific project management issues. Various components covered by PRINCE2 are: Business Case; Organisation; Plans; Controls; Management of Risk; Quality in a Project Environment; Configuration Management; Change Control. Project management (Kliem, et al., 2002) maturity models are designed around the companys own environment, structure and needs in to four levels of maturity: 1. The first level usually reflects an informal and individualistic approach to project management with poor project definition and co-ordination, 2. The next level reflects a more functional application with some project co-ordination and where project management is mainly viewed as a tool or technique, 3. The third level addresses project management as being practiced with some degree of excellence either in a transitional or matures state, 4. The final level addresses portfolio management and may not be applicable to all types of industry depending on their project types and numbers. The project management (Churchhouse, 1999) maturity models are effective in an organization and this ownership is shared across the executive management. Implementation and deployment will generally be responsibility of a dedicated team assigned, preferably to a central department or group within the organization who work as a team and provide strong sponsorship, guidance and commonality across the organization. This management team is supported by a network of project management practitioners within the organization. Structured methodology and documentation use across all levels of the organization, incorporating the companys cultural and operational characteristics aligned with the companys quality system, complies with industry and professional standards; and is effectively applied in operational use. Project management tools, whether technical or non-technical, enterprise wide need to meet the needs of the project management community with defined methodology. (Thayer, 2000) The project management (Harrison, 2002) needs are defined, measured, understood and developed to a visible career structure that has formal recognition, status and reward. Organizations from time-to-time need some direct intervention, whether its mentoring executive and senior management, coaching project and line managers, assisting project team members carry out their roles, assessing and bringing back on-track in-trouble projects, recruiting project managers for permanent or temporary assignments, creating a project management office (PMO), measuring workforce performance, or improving the visibility of project management within the organization. Management development of all the management layers is critical to success, whether an executive briefing, senior program or line management course needs to fully understand their roles and responsibility in supporting the environment, coaching behaviours and mentoring individuals. Managers are to be aware of the development and investment of the procedures, tools, training and competency with the investment manifests itself into the behaviours of the workforce across the whole width of the company. (Earl, et al., 1995) 2.6 Project Management department process: Measuring the behaviours in the upper management levels provides a clear demonstrable metric to the improvement of project management within Infosys Technologies Limited. The behaviours are categorized into the five areas that constitute a project manager leaders role: (Raz, et al., 2003) 1. Planning. 2. Organizing and staffing. 3. Directing and leading. 4. Controlling. 5. Reporting. The improvement is measured in two ways (Gray and Larson, 2002), firstly a percentage improvement between before and after scoring and secondly the percentage increase. PRINCE2 is documented to get the maximum benefit for an organisation and it accredits training organisations and registered consultants able to work to tailor and focus PRINCE2 on requirements. Each PRINCE2 project consists of a Project Board made up of the customer, someone who can represent the user side and someone to represent the supplier. In PRINCE2 these people are called Customer, Senior User and Senior Supplier respectively. The Project Manager reports regularly to the Project Board, keeping them informed of progress and highlighting. The Project Board is responsible for providing the Project Manager with the necessary decisions for the project to proceed and to overcome any problems. On some projects (Kerzner, 2003) the assurance is done by a separate team of people called the Project Assurance Team, but the assurance job can be done by the individual members of the Project Board themselves. On most projects there is a lot of administrative work needed, keeping everyone informed, arranging meetings, keeping plans up-to-date, chasing things up and keeping files. Project Managers often do all the work themselves, particularly on smaller projects. But if there are a number of projects going on at the same time, a Project Support Office can be setup to help the Project Managers in the process. One of the simplest yet most effective things upper management can do is to set out the companys policy for project management. This establishes the vision for how the company wants to best utilize project management concepts and gives a clear downwards communication. A useful starting point for considering the need to model project management performance is making the distinction between project performance and PM performance. These two are interlinked, but different and it is important not to confuse the two. PM performance might focus on delivering a project within budget, yet if the overriding success criterion or key performance indicator (KPI) for the project is delivering future benefit to the organisation. (Courtney and Hugh, 2001) The impact of success criteria on a number of Information Technologies (IT) projects the customer and other stakeholders, such as users, will define what they mean by quality. This focus on meeting customer and other stakeholder requirements corresponds with definitions of quality in the quality management literature and makes a link between quality, project performance and PM performance. The customers definition of what is quality in a project environment will be based upon attributes linked to the quality of the management process as well as attributes linked to the quality of the end product delivered by the project. (Jan Van Bon, 2006) The developing models of project (Woodward, 2007) performance can be provided in two ways. First, models that help organisations provide effective PM performance can lead to beneficial outcomes regardless of the success or otherwise of the project being managed. Second, as elements of PM performance may influence overall sat

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Solar Water Heating System in Malaysian Homes

Solar Water Heating System in Malaysian Homes Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Project Title A study into solar water heating system in Malaysian Homes 1.2 Problem Statement Malaysia has favourable climatic conditions for the development of solar energy due to the abundant sunshine and is considered good for harnessing energy from the sun. This is because solar hot water can represent the large energy consumer in Malaysia households. But, because of the high initial cost of solar water heating system, and easily to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase electric water heaters, many Malaysia families are still suing electric water heaters to hot their water needs. This research is presented the comparing of solar water heating system from Malaysian’s market with the electric water heater by study the initial cost, price, durability, maintenance cost and environment impact for both systems. The most important is to compare the long term economical benefits for both systems. 1.3 Aims To study solar water heating system in Malaysian Homes 1.4 Objectives To determine the pros and cons for solar water heating system To investigate the popularity of solar water heating system in Malaysian Homes To compare the initial cost, price, durability, and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater 1.5 Background Every day, we are heard with information about global warming, global pollution, wars over energy resources, species depletion†¦the lists go and on. Solar energy is renewable. Solar Water Heating System gets energy from the sun to heat water for homes, there by displacing the use of electricity. The use of Solar Water Heating System has a long history and it is impossible for us to exactly date the first uses of it. But we do know that ancient Greeks and Romans civilizations made good use of passive solar energy in their building designs. The first inventor for Solar Water Heater is Clarence M. Kemp at Year 1891. Until today, Solar Water Heating System is commonly used by residents and becomes one of the action to protect our global. 1.6 Scope of Study The main study will specific on Solar Water Heating System and its pros and cons. The scope of study will focus on the comparison of initial cost, price, durability and environmental impact between Solar Water Heating System and Electric Water Heater. 1.7 Research Methodology  : This research will be carried out by using literature review and questionnaire. Literature review is going to determine the pros and cons for solar water heating system, and also to compare the cost of operation, price, durability, maintenance cost and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater. Questionnaire will be carried out to investigate the popularity of Solar Water Heater in Malaysian Homes at Wangsa Maju. 1.8 Contribution From this research, we gain deeper knowledge about solar water heating system and Malaysian’s family can have another choice on water heating system other than electric water heater. 1.9 Proposed Chapter 1.9.1 Chapter 1 -Introduction Introduction for solar water heating system. 1.9.2 Chapter 2 -Literature review Determine the pros and cons for solar water heating system from journals, books and through internet to support. Compare the cost of operation, price, durability, maintenance cost and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater. 1.9.3 Chapter 3 -Research Methodology 1.9.3.1 Questionnaire The method for this research is using questionnaire. The main purpose of this questionnaire is to obtain facts, data and basic information from every party that involves in this area of study. Questionnaire will be distributed to relevant parties for feedback and will be set in an easy to answer manner to encourage response from the respondents. At the end of the questionnaire section, result will be tabulated in charts, graph, pie forms. This will reflect the trend and indicates the distribution of figure to help in analyzing the problems. 1.9.3.2 Literature Review The information of the second source will be come from literature review. For the topic of this Project and Dissertation, all the information will base on the relevant literature on Solar Water Heating System. For better understanding, some aspects such as the method of installation for Solar Water Heating System, the type of Solar Water Heating System will also included. TARC library and national library is the best way to get all the relevant information. Besides that, internet is also the way to obtain all the relevant information and data. The online resource in TARC library is the best search engineers for the journals articles which related to my Project and Dissertation. 1.9.4 Chapter 4 -Data and analysis After the questionnaire, all the analysis results will be record and explain in this chapter. All the result will base on 40 respondents and given a conclusion whether the majority of the respondents prefer water heating system or electric water heater in Malaysian Homes. 1.9.5 Chapter 5 -Conclusion In this chapter will list down the achievement of objectives for this dissertation and will be concluded and commented. Other than that, my personal opinion and comment will also be in this chapter. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 History of Solar Water Heating System Throughout human’s history the sun has always been a subject of guess and mystery. In fact, most ancient cultures have considered the sun as a god or godlike due to its life-giving and energy-giving. Thus, the subject of solar is one of the oldest subject for human. Besides that, it has gone through many evolutions and has been the subject of many schools of thought- starting with religion, and ending up in the field of science. It is impossible to exactly date the first uses of solar energy, it maybe the Egyptian, Chinese or even the Malay first invented solar energy. But we do know that ancient Greeks and Romans civilizations, made good use of passive solar energy in their building designs. The use of Solar Water Heating System has a surprisingly long history. Year 1891, Clarence M. Kemp became the first man to patent a Solar Water Heater, called the â€Å"Climax†(Bob Ramlow and Benjamin Nusz, 2006, p.2). It was a black painted water tank mounted in an insulated box with glass on one side. The Climax was instantly popular in California. Thousands of Climaxes and similar systems were installed in a short time. Figure 2. 1 An old advertisement for the Climax Solar Water Heater Year 1909, William J. Bailey, a California Engineer began selling a new system Solar Water Heater named â€Å"Day and Night†(Ramlow and Nusz, 2006, p.3). It consisted of a solar collector and a separate storage tank mounted above the collector. Year 1913, a freak cold snap hit southern California and many â€Å"Day and Night† Solar Water Heater collectors froze and burst. To terminate future freezing problem, Bailey installed a coil of pipe within the storage tank to act as a heat exchanger. Then he used an alcohol and water mixture as the antifreeze solution for his heat exchange medium. This system called as a â€Å"closed-loop† Solar Water Heating System. Year 1979, U.S. President Jimmy Carter made the following prophetic statement at the inauguration of a solar-thermal water heater installed on the White House roof: â€Å"In the Year 2000, the solar heater behind me will still be here, supplying cheap, efficient energy. A generation from now, this solar heater can either be a curiosity, a museum piece, an example of a road not taken; or it can be just a small part of the greatest and most exciting adventure ever undertaken by the American people.† (Ondrey, 2009). 2.2 Introduction of Solar Water Heating System One of the biggest uses of electricity, gas and oil is the heating of water in the home. Solar Water Heating System is a very simple and efficient way to grab energy from sun and use it. Solar Water Heater collects and converts solar radiation energy to useful thermal energy into the form of hot water. It essentially consists of solar collectors for absorbing and converting the solar energy and an insulated storage vessel or tank to contain the heated water. The amount of hot water a solar water heater produces depends on:- type and size of the system amount of sun available at the site seasonal hot water demand pattern and installation of the system Solar Water heater used in the homes for supplying domestic hot water are typically installed with some form of back-up heating system such as electricity to ensure a hot water supply during the night time and cloudy conditions. Solar water heater can be considered as per-heater. The Solar Water Heater raises the temperature of water before it enters the water tank. 2.3 Types of Solar Water Heating System There are two types of Solar Water Heating Systems, either is active or passive. Both of the types are working on the same principles. The only difference is active systems have a pump moving the water through the Solar Water Heating System but passive systems rely on nature principles which is warm water rises to the top, and cold water sinks to the bottom. With a passive Solar Water Heating System, the water storage tank must therefore always be positioned above the solar water heater collector. 2.3.1 Active Solar Water Heating System Active Solar Water Heaters rely on electric pumps, and the controllers to circulate water, or other heat-transfer fluids through the collectors. These are the types of Active Solar Water Heating System:- Open loop active systems- circulate water directly from the tank through the collectors (Morrison, 2005, p.226). This design is efficient and also can lower operating costs if there is no problem with the water supply because of calcium deposits quickly build up in the collector. Closed loop active systems- the heat transfer fluid is pumped through the collectors, and a heat exchanger is used to transfer heat from the collector loop to the water in the tank (Morrison, 2005, p.227). The two most common closed loop active  systems are:- Antifreeze- The heat transfer fluid is usually a glycol-water mixture with the glycol concentration depending on the expected minimum temperature. The glycol is usually food-grade propylene glycol because it is non-toxic. Drainback systems- A type of indirect system, use pump to circulate water through the collectors. The water in the collector loop drains into a reservoir tank when the pumps stop. This makes drainback systems a good choice in colder climates. Drainback systems must be carefully installed to assure that the piping always slopes downward, so that the water will completely drain from the piping. This can be difficult to achieve in some circulation. Active systems are usually more expensive and are less efficient than passive system of antifreeze measures are required. Active systems are more difficult to retrofit in houses that do not have basements because space must be found in house for additional equipment (Morrison, 2005, p.226). 2.3.2 Passive Solar Water Heating System Passive Solar Water Heaters rely on gravity and the tendency for water to naturally circulate as it is heated. Due to they contain no electric components, passive systems are generally more reliable, easier to maintain, and possibly have a longer work life than active systems. The two most popular types of passive systems are:- Integral-collector storage systems- combine tank and collector into one unit. These systems are simple and effective (Morrison, 2005, p.225). This system is only good in households with daytime and evening hot water needs due to high heat loss at night. The main limitation with this system concept is it is only a pre-heater and must be connected in series with a conventional water heater if a 24 hours hot water supply is required. Thermosyphon systems- an economical and reliable choice, especially in new homes. These systems rely on the natural circulation of water between the collector and the tank or heat exchanger (Morrison, 2005, p. 223). The tank set up must above the collector due to achieve circulation during daytime and also to limit reverse circulation at nighttime. Water which is heated will rise naturally into the tank and cooler water flows down to the bottom of the collector, causing circulation throughout system. 2.4 Pros and Cons of Solar Water Heating System 2.4.1 Advantages of Solar Water Heating System Installing a Solar Water Heater is an investment that will save our money for the coming years and it is simple to construct. It is almost free once the equipment is installed because of the â€Å"fuel† for the Solar Water Heater is getting from sun. Energy from the sun is renewable. So, we are protected from electricity bill increment year by year in the future. It is four times cheaper than electricity (Pandey and Banerjee, 1998, p.17). Besides that, it is environment free because it produces no greenhouse gases. Solar Water Heater avoids nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and other air pollutants created when electric water heater is used to heat water. Solar Water Heater reduces pollutants and contribute to a healthier environment Other than that, Solar Water Heater is extremely safe and clean. We will feel free from the problem which will occur by electric water heater because Solar Water Heater mostly no maintenance, repair work or cleaning is required. By choosing a Solar Water Heater to heat water in home, it is an intelligent, socially aware and environmentally responsible energy source. 2.4.2 Disadvantages of Solar Water Heating System Although Solar Water Heating System consists of a lot of advantages, but it has its disadvantages also. First of all, Solar Water Heater will doesn’t work well on days when it is cloudy, over cast or raining. Besides that, it doesn’t work at nighttime. So, it is typically installed with electric water heater to ensure that hot water is supplied when the day is cloudy, overcast, raining or at night. Other than that, Cost of purchase Solar Water Heater is one the most critical issue. The initial cost of Solar Water Heater is high for Malaysian if compare to electric water heater. Many of the residents will not choose Solar Water heater due to its high initial cost. In addition, appearance of the house will affected due to the collector of Solar Water Heater is being installed on the roof. 2.5 Selecting a Solar Water Heater Before purchasing and installing a Solar Water Heating System, we are required to do the following:-  ·Ã‚  Consider into the economics of a Solar Water Heating System  ·Ã‚  Consider into the needs of hot water required  ·Ã‚  Determine the correct size for Solar Water Heating System  ·Ã‚  Determine the energy efficiency of Solar Water Heating System  ·Ã‚  Estimate and compare system costs 2.6 Method of Installation for Solar Water Heating System The installation of a Solar Water Heater requires skills that overlap many trades. Installer needs to be familiar with plumbing, roofing and electrical. Here will shows the various steps and processes to install a Solar Water Heater. This Solar Water Heating System consists of flat-plate collector, a differential controller, several sensors, a pump, and various valves. Step 1: Collector Mounting Before start the installation, installer must verify that the roof is suitable for the condition of mounting of the solar collector. Installer has to ensure that the roof tiles are in satisfactory condition and the trusses are adequate to support the collector. In general, there is no problem for installing a solar collector on a traditional roof. Besides that, it is recommended that the solar collector to face to south or within 30 º to 45  º east or west of due south. The installer needs to locate the trusses that will be use to attach the solar mounting brackets. After installer locates the trusses, he will then makes preparation for the installing of the collector mounting clips. The collector will then attach to the clips. Installer will carefully remove the roof tiles where the mounting clips will be installed. Four mounting clips will be used to support the collector and also to distribute the weight at the four mounting locations. Lastly, solar collector installs on the mounting clips. Step 2: Roof Pipe Flashing First of all, installer needs to identify and mark down the locations of the piping penetrations. There will be two penetration-collector feed line and collector return line. In gravity drain system, the feed line should penetrate the roof below the collector. Then, make a flat copper flashing with an oversize collar to penetrate the fluid line. Step 3: Piping from Tank to Collector Installer will install the pipe that will connect the water heater to the solar connector. Normally, soft copper will be used in the attic run between the tank area components and the collector lines exits at the roof because by using soft copper, installer does not have to solder any fittings in the attic. Pipe hangers will be used in locations to secure the long piping runs. Besides that, insulation will be installed on all attic piping to prevent heat loss. Step 4: Collector Feed line Piping Installer will measure, cut and fit the pipe fittings for proper length. He will solder the piping and fittings once all of them have been attached correctly. Step 5: Collector Return Line Plumbing Installer will solder fittings that will accommodate the system air vent. The system can prevent air locks that will restrict flow in the system. Air vent is always install at the high point of system and in a true north vertical position. Then, installer will solder more fitting such as pressure relief valve. Step 6: Storage Tank Installer starts the installation for storage tank. this involves plumbing the water heater for cold service, hot outlet, collector feed and return lines. Installer will place insulation on all exposed piping once the piping has been installed to reduce heat loss during system operation. Lastly, he will set the thermostat on the water heater because although the majority of the how water is produced by solar energy, but when cloudy, overcast or nighttime, the electric elements are always the spare for it. Step 7: Controller and Sensors Installer will install controller and sensor for the system. The differential controller is the brains of solar system. It works with two sensors. One of it located at the hottest part of the system which is collector outlet. The other one is located at the coldest part of the system which is the bottom of the tank. Step 8: Pump and Valves A Solar Water Heating System consists of a variety of components. System pump also called as circulator is a critical component for Solar Water Heating System. Its function is to circulate the fluid from the tank to the collector. Then the fluid gains heat in the solar collector and return to the storage tank. Besides that, check valve, drain valves and isolation valves also the components to install. Step 9: Pipe Insulation The last step for installation process is pipe insulation. It is to prevent heat loss from the piping, so pipe insulation is installed on both external and internal system piping. After that, installer should provide the owner of the Solar Water Heater a system operation and maintenance manual. 2.7 A Comparison between Solar Water Heater and Electric Water Heater Solartech (Summer) CX – Direct Heating* Panasonic DH – 3HE1M** Panasonic DH – 3HT1M** Type of Water Heater Solar Electric Electric Power Consumption 2.4 KW (back up heating element) 3.6 KW 3.6 KW Selling Price / unit RM 5,490.00 RM 639.00 RM 449.00 Selling Price (2 units) RM 1,278 RM 1,098 Initial Cost (selling price + installation cost) RM 5,690.00 RM 1428.00 RM 1248.00 Warranty (full warranty) 10 years 1 year 1 year Operation Cost / year RM 170.25 RM 1,109.67 RM 1,109.67 Operation Cost (10 years) RM 1702.50 RM 11,096.70 RM 11,096.70 Total Cost (initial cost + operation cost) for 10 years without maintenance cost RM 7,392.50 RM 12,374.70 RM 12,194.70 Environment Impact free CO2 CO2 Table 2. 1 Comparison between Solar Water Heater and Electric Water Heater * Description is given by Solartech Sales Service Sdn Bhd ** Description is given by Pansasonic Malaysia Sdn Bhd The table above shows the comparison between Solar Water Heater and Electric Water Heater. In the table, it is shown that the total cost for 10 years, environment impact and their operation cost. Firstly, for family consists of 6 persons considered as the study in the table. They installed 2 units of electric water heater in the toilets for their house or a unit of Solar Water Heater. Their need for hot water is 3 hours per day. Besides that, the study is estimating the total cost for 10 years. 2.7.1 Total Cost Method Intention in this study is to let the operation time (N) of a system be variable to find the operation life of the systems. The total cost will be adapted in the study because it allows the comparison between the systems for 10 years time. In general, the total cost of a system can be expressed as the following equation: Total Cost = Initial Cost + Operation Cost( 10years) 2.7.1.1 Operation Cost (OC) For Electric Water Heater, operation cost is the electrical bill cost over the year to provide hot water needs of the family consists of 6 persons. But for Solar Water Heater, the operation cost is yearly electrical bill cost for the back up heating system. OCSWH = 12 months x NOCD x NOHs x price of electricity (RM/KWh) Where, OCSWH operation cost of Solar Water Heater; NOCD number of cloudy day per month; NOHS number of hours switched back up heating system. OCEWH = 365 days x NOH x price of electricity (RM/KWh) Where, OCEWH operation cost of Electric Water Heater; NOH number of hours electricity is used to provide hot water. 2.7.2 Summary of the values of the parameter Solartech (Summer) CX – Direct Heating Panasonic DH – 3HE1M (2 units) Panasonic DH – 3HT1M (2 units) Initial Cost = RM 5,690.00 OC = 12 months x NOCD x NOHs x price of  electricity (RM/KWh) = 12 months x 7 days/month x 3 hours x (2.4 KW x (RM 0.218 + RM 0.345)/2) = RM 170.25 Total Cost = Initial Cost + (OC x 10 years) = RM 5,690.00 + (RM 170.25 x 10) = RM 7,392.50 Initial Cost = RM 1,278.00 OC = 365 days x NOH x price of electricity (RM/KWh) = 365 days x 3 hours x (3.6 KW x (RM 0.218 + RM 0.345)/2) = RM 1,109.67 Total Cost = Initial Cost + (OC x 10 years) = RM 1,278.00 + (RM 1,109.67 x 10) = RM 12,374.70 Initial Cost = RM 1,098.00 OC = 365 days x NOH x price of electricity (RM/KWh) = 365 days x 3 hours x (3.6 KW x (RM 0.218 + RM 0.345)/2) = RM 1,109.67 Total Cost = Initial Cost + (OC x 10 years) = RM 1,098.00 + (RM 1,109.67 x 10) = RM 12,194.70 Table 2. 2 Summary of the values of the paramater From the table above, it is shown that Solar Water Heater is more economical and more attractive than the Electric Water Heater in long term. It is better for the family to use Solar Water Heater when compared to Electrical Water Heater. Besides that, it is more benefits to install Solar Water Heater because of long term economical benefits, environment friendly and a way to avoid from the problem of increasing electricity bill and increasing family size. References Ong, K. S. 1994. Solar Water Heater. Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia: University of Malaya. Gordon, J. 2005. Solar Enegy The State of The Art. London: James James (Science Publishers) Ltd. Ondrey, G. 2009. ‘Solar’s Second Coming’. Chemical Engineering. pg. 18. Pandey, J. L. and Banerjee M. K. 1998. ‘Energy Conservation with the Use of Solar Selective Coatings’. Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials. 45(1), pp. 16-24. Davidson, Jane, Wood and Byard. 1996. ‘Solar Hot Water for the Home’. Mechanical Engineering. pg. 60. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2009. ‘Economics of Domestic Solar Hot Water Heating Systems in Malaysia’. 26(1), pp. 20-28 Progress Report Task to be completed Second Year Semester 1 (Week)   July 05, 2009 July 11, 2009 July 12, 2009 July 18, 2009 July 19, 2009 July 25, 2009 July 26, 2009 Aug 01, 2009 Aug 02, 2009 Aug 08, 2009 Aug 09, 2009 Aug 15, 2009 Aug 16, 2009 Aug 22, 2009 Aug 23, 2009 Aug 29, 2009 Confirm Title Finalise Proposal 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Literature review Proposed Work Schedule Actual Work Schedule Task to be completed Second Year Semester 1 (Week) July 05, 2009 July 11, 2009 July 12, 2009 July 18, 2009 July 19, 2009 July 25, 2009 July 26, 2009 Aug 01, 2009 Aug 02, 2009 Aug 08, 2009 Aug 09, 2009 Aug 15, 2009 Aug 16, 2009 Aug 22, 2009 Aug 23, 2009 Aug 29, 2009 Confirm Title Finalise Proposal 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Literature review Every element had been done on time according to the proposed work progress except Chapter 1 Introduction. It should be done before August 01, 2009, but in stead it was done on August 22, 2009. The reason for the delay because of Introduction is revised proposal, so I decided to postpone it until the same with the date of completion for literature review. For Literature Review, I started it a week earlier than the proposed work schedule due to I need longer time to search information from TARC library and internet. Besides that, I also needed to get the quotation from supplier so that I started my literature review earlier. Luckily, everything in progress and I finished my literature review on time. My supervisor, Mr. Teh Bin Sin checked my works on August 20, 2009 and I printed out all the chapters for interim submission. Report on Changes Involved Date (Week) Issue of Changes Issue of Amendment July 05, 2009 – July 11,2009 Project Title ‘A Comparison between Solar Water Heating System and Electric Water Heater’ changed to ‘A Study into Solar Water Heating System in Malaysian Homes’ The project title changed because ‘A Study into Solar Water Heating System in Malaysian Homes’ is more specific and to fulfill requirement of supervisor. July 26, 2009 – August 01, 2009 Objectives ‘To compare the initial cost, price, durability, maintenance cost and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater’ changed to ‘To compare the initial cost, price, durability, and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater’ Due to the comment from supplier, which is maintenance cost is difficult to calculate or estimate for the following 10 years for water heater, so I decided to take out the comparison of maintenance cost in objective. Solar Water Heating System in Malaysian Homes Solar Water Heating System in Malaysian Homes Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Project Title A study into solar water heating system in Malaysian Homes 1.2 Problem Statement Malaysia has favourable climatic conditions for the development of solar energy due to the abundant sunshine and is considered good for harnessing energy from the sun. This is because solar hot water can represent the large energy consumer in Malaysia households. But, because of the high initial cost of solar water heating system, and easily to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase electric water heaters, many Malaysia families are still suing electric water heaters to hot their water needs. This research is presented the comparing of solar water heating system from Malaysian’s market with the electric water heater by study the initial cost, price, durability, maintenance cost and environment impact for both systems. The most important is to compare the long term economical benefits for both systems. 1.3 Aims To study solar water heating system in Malaysian Homes 1.4 Objectives To determine the pros and cons for solar water heating system To investigate the popularity of solar water heating system in Malaysian Homes To compare the initial cost, price, durability, and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater 1.5 Background Every day, we are heard with information about global warming, global pollution, wars over energy resources, species depletion†¦the lists go and on. Solar energy is renewable. Solar Water Heating System gets energy from the sun to heat water for homes, there by displacing the use of electricity. The use of Solar Water Heating System has a long history and it is impossible for us to exactly date the first uses of it. But we do know that ancient Greeks and Romans civilizations made good use of passive solar energy in their building designs. The first inventor for Solar Water Heater is Clarence M. Kemp at Year 1891. Until today, Solar Water Heating System is commonly used by residents and becomes one of the action to protect our global. 1.6 Scope of Study The main study will specific on Solar Water Heating System and its pros and cons. The scope of study will focus on the comparison of initial cost, price, durability and environmental impact between Solar Water Heating System and Electric Water Heater. 1.7 Research Methodology  : This research will be carried out by using literature review and questionnaire. Literature review is going to determine the pros and cons for solar water heating system, and also to compare the cost of operation, price, durability, maintenance cost and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater. Questionnaire will be carried out to investigate the popularity of Solar Water Heater in Malaysian Homes at Wangsa Maju. 1.8 Contribution From this research, we gain deeper knowledge about solar water heating system and Malaysian’s family can have another choice on water heating system other than electric water heater. 1.9 Proposed Chapter 1.9.1 Chapter 1 -Introduction Introduction for solar water heating system. 1.9.2 Chapter 2 -Literature review Determine the pros and cons for solar water heating system from journals, books and through internet to support. Compare the cost of operation, price, durability, maintenance cost and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater. 1.9.3 Chapter 3 -Research Methodology 1.9.3.1 Questionnaire The method for this research is using questionnaire. The main purpose of this questionnaire is to obtain facts, data and basic information from every party that involves in this area of study. Questionnaire will be distributed to relevant parties for feedback and will be set in an easy to answer manner to encourage response from the respondents. At the end of the questionnaire section, result will be tabulated in charts, graph, pie forms. This will reflect the trend and indicates the distribution of figure to help in analyzing the problems. 1.9.3.2 Literature Review The information of the second source will be come from literature review. For the topic of this Project and Dissertation, all the information will base on the relevant literature on Solar Water Heating System. For better understanding, some aspects such as the method of installation for Solar Water Heating System, the type of Solar Water Heating System will also included. TARC library and national library is the best way to get all the relevant information. Besides that, internet is also the way to obtain all the relevant information and data. The online resource in TARC library is the best search engineers for the journals articles which related to my Project and Dissertation. 1.9.4 Chapter 4 -Data and analysis After the questionnaire, all the analysis results will be record and explain in this chapter. All the result will base on 40 respondents and given a conclusion whether the majority of the respondents prefer water heating system or electric water heater in Malaysian Homes. 1.9.5 Chapter 5 -Conclusion In this chapter will list down the achievement of objectives for this dissertation and will be concluded and commented. Other than that, my personal opinion and comment will also be in this chapter. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 History of Solar Water Heating System Throughout human’s history the sun has always been a subject of guess and mystery. In fact, most ancient cultures have considered the sun as a god or godlike due to its life-giving and energy-giving. Thus, the subject of solar is one of the oldest subject for human. Besides that, it has gone through many evolutions and has been the subject of many schools of thought- starting with religion, and ending up in the field of science. It is impossible to exactly date the first uses of solar energy, it maybe the Egyptian, Chinese or even the Malay first invented solar energy. But we do know that ancient Greeks and Romans civilizations, made good use of passive solar energy in their building designs. The use of Solar Water Heating System has a surprisingly long history. Year 1891, Clarence M. Kemp became the first man to patent a Solar Water Heater, called the â€Å"Climax†(Bob Ramlow and Benjamin Nusz, 2006, p.2). It was a black painted water tank mounted in an insulated box with glass on one side. The Climax was instantly popular in California. Thousands of Climaxes and similar systems were installed in a short time. Figure 2. 1 An old advertisement for the Climax Solar Water Heater Year 1909, William J. Bailey, a California Engineer began selling a new system Solar Water Heater named â€Å"Day and Night†(Ramlow and Nusz, 2006, p.3). It consisted of a solar collector and a separate storage tank mounted above the collector. Year 1913, a freak cold snap hit southern California and many â€Å"Day and Night† Solar Water Heater collectors froze and burst. To terminate future freezing problem, Bailey installed a coil of pipe within the storage tank to act as a heat exchanger. Then he used an alcohol and water mixture as the antifreeze solution for his heat exchange medium. This system called as a â€Å"closed-loop† Solar Water Heating System. Year 1979, U.S. President Jimmy Carter made the following prophetic statement at the inauguration of a solar-thermal water heater installed on the White House roof: â€Å"In the Year 2000, the solar heater behind me will still be here, supplying cheap, efficient energy. A generation from now, this solar heater can either be a curiosity, a museum piece, an example of a road not taken; or it can be just a small part of the greatest and most exciting adventure ever undertaken by the American people.† (Ondrey, 2009). 2.2 Introduction of Solar Water Heating System One of the biggest uses of electricity, gas and oil is the heating of water in the home. Solar Water Heating System is a very simple and efficient way to grab energy from sun and use it. Solar Water Heater collects and converts solar radiation energy to useful thermal energy into the form of hot water. It essentially consists of solar collectors for absorbing and converting the solar energy and an insulated storage vessel or tank to contain the heated water. The amount of hot water a solar water heater produces depends on:- type and size of the system amount of sun available at the site seasonal hot water demand pattern and installation of the system Solar Water heater used in the homes for supplying domestic hot water are typically installed with some form of back-up heating system such as electricity to ensure a hot water supply during the night time and cloudy conditions. Solar water heater can be considered as per-heater. The Solar Water Heater raises the temperature of water before it enters the water tank. 2.3 Types of Solar Water Heating System There are two types of Solar Water Heating Systems, either is active or passive. Both of the types are working on the same principles. The only difference is active systems have a pump moving the water through the Solar Water Heating System but passive systems rely on nature principles which is warm water rises to the top, and cold water sinks to the bottom. With a passive Solar Water Heating System, the water storage tank must therefore always be positioned above the solar water heater collector. 2.3.1 Active Solar Water Heating System Active Solar Water Heaters rely on electric pumps, and the controllers to circulate water, or other heat-transfer fluids through the collectors. These are the types of Active Solar Water Heating System:- Open loop active systems- circulate water directly from the tank through the collectors (Morrison, 2005, p.226). This design is efficient and also can lower operating costs if there is no problem with the water supply because of calcium deposits quickly build up in the collector. Closed loop active systems- the heat transfer fluid is pumped through the collectors, and a heat exchanger is used to transfer heat from the collector loop to the water in the tank (Morrison, 2005, p.227). The two most common closed loop active  systems are:- Antifreeze- The heat transfer fluid is usually a glycol-water mixture with the glycol concentration depending on the expected minimum temperature. The glycol is usually food-grade propylene glycol because it is non-toxic. Drainback systems- A type of indirect system, use pump to circulate water through the collectors. The water in the collector loop drains into a reservoir tank when the pumps stop. This makes drainback systems a good choice in colder climates. Drainback systems must be carefully installed to assure that the piping always slopes downward, so that the water will completely drain from the piping. This can be difficult to achieve in some circulation. Active systems are usually more expensive and are less efficient than passive system of antifreeze measures are required. Active systems are more difficult to retrofit in houses that do not have basements because space must be found in house for additional equipment (Morrison, 2005, p.226). 2.3.2 Passive Solar Water Heating System Passive Solar Water Heaters rely on gravity and the tendency for water to naturally circulate as it is heated. Due to they contain no electric components, passive systems are generally more reliable, easier to maintain, and possibly have a longer work life than active systems. The two most popular types of passive systems are:- Integral-collector storage systems- combine tank and collector into one unit. These systems are simple and effective (Morrison, 2005, p.225). This system is only good in households with daytime and evening hot water needs due to high heat loss at night. The main limitation with this system concept is it is only a pre-heater and must be connected in series with a conventional water heater if a 24 hours hot water supply is required. Thermosyphon systems- an economical and reliable choice, especially in new homes. These systems rely on the natural circulation of water between the collector and the tank or heat exchanger (Morrison, 2005, p. 223). The tank set up must above the collector due to achieve circulation during daytime and also to limit reverse circulation at nighttime. Water which is heated will rise naturally into the tank and cooler water flows down to the bottom of the collector, causing circulation throughout system. 2.4 Pros and Cons of Solar Water Heating System 2.4.1 Advantages of Solar Water Heating System Installing a Solar Water Heater is an investment that will save our money for the coming years and it is simple to construct. It is almost free once the equipment is installed because of the â€Å"fuel† for the Solar Water Heater is getting from sun. Energy from the sun is renewable. So, we are protected from electricity bill increment year by year in the future. It is four times cheaper than electricity (Pandey and Banerjee, 1998, p.17). Besides that, it is environment free because it produces no greenhouse gases. Solar Water Heater avoids nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and other air pollutants created when electric water heater is used to heat water. Solar Water Heater reduces pollutants and contribute to a healthier environment Other than that, Solar Water Heater is extremely safe and clean. We will feel free from the problem which will occur by electric water heater because Solar Water Heater mostly no maintenance, repair work or cleaning is required. By choosing a Solar Water Heater to heat water in home, it is an intelligent, socially aware and environmentally responsible energy source. 2.4.2 Disadvantages of Solar Water Heating System Although Solar Water Heating System consists of a lot of advantages, but it has its disadvantages also. First of all, Solar Water Heater will doesn’t work well on days when it is cloudy, over cast or raining. Besides that, it doesn’t work at nighttime. So, it is typically installed with electric water heater to ensure that hot water is supplied when the day is cloudy, overcast, raining or at night. Other than that, Cost of purchase Solar Water Heater is one the most critical issue. The initial cost of Solar Water Heater is high for Malaysian if compare to electric water heater. Many of the residents will not choose Solar Water heater due to its high initial cost. In addition, appearance of the house will affected due to the collector of Solar Water Heater is being installed on the roof. 2.5 Selecting a Solar Water Heater Before purchasing and installing a Solar Water Heating System, we are required to do the following:-  ·Ã‚  Consider into the economics of a Solar Water Heating System  ·Ã‚  Consider into the needs of hot water required  ·Ã‚  Determine the correct size for Solar Water Heating System  ·Ã‚  Determine the energy efficiency of Solar Water Heating System  ·Ã‚  Estimate and compare system costs 2.6 Method of Installation for Solar Water Heating System The installation of a Solar Water Heater requires skills that overlap many trades. Installer needs to be familiar with plumbing, roofing and electrical. Here will shows the various steps and processes to install a Solar Water Heater. This Solar Water Heating System consists of flat-plate collector, a differential controller, several sensors, a pump, and various valves. Step 1: Collector Mounting Before start the installation, installer must verify that the roof is suitable for the condition of mounting of the solar collector. Installer has to ensure that the roof tiles are in satisfactory condition and the trusses are adequate to support the collector. In general, there is no problem for installing a solar collector on a traditional roof. Besides that, it is recommended that the solar collector to face to south or within 30 º to 45  º east or west of due south. The installer needs to locate the trusses that will be use to attach the solar mounting brackets. After installer locates the trusses, he will then makes preparation for the installing of the collector mounting clips. The collector will then attach to the clips. Installer will carefully remove the roof tiles where the mounting clips will be installed. Four mounting clips will be used to support the collector and also to distribute the weight at the four mounting locations. Lastly, solar collector installs on the mounting clips. Step 2: Roof Pipe Flashing First of all, installer needs to identify and mark down the locations of the piping penetrations. There will be two penetration-collector feed line and collector return line. In gravity drain system, the feed line should penetrate the roof below the collector. Then, make a flat copper flashing with an oversize collar to penetrate the fluid line. Step 3: Piping from Tank to Collector Installer will install the pipe that will connect the water heater to the solar connector. Normally, soft copper will be used in the attic run between the tank area components and the collector lines exits at the roof because by using soft copper, installer does not have to solder any fittings in the attic. Pipe hangers will be used in locations to secure the long piping runs. Besides that, insulation will be installed on all attic piping to prevent heat loss. Step 4: Collector Feed line Piping Installer will measure, cut and fit the pipe fittings for proper length. He will solder the piping and fittings once all of them have been attached correctly. Step 5: Collector Return Line Plumbing Installer will solder fittings that will accommodate the system air vent. The system can prevent air locks that will restrict flow in the system. Air vent is always install at the high point of system and in a true north vertical position. Then, installer will solder more fitting such as pressure relief valve. Step 6: Storage Tank Installer starts the installation for storage tank. this involves plumbing the water heater for cold service, hot outlet, collector feed and return lines. Installer will place insulation on all exposed piping once the piping has been installed to reduce heat loss during system operation. Lastly, he will set the thermostat on the water heater because although the majority of the how water is produced by solar energy, but when cloudy, overcast or nighttime, the electric elements are always the spare for it. Step 7: Controller and Sensors Installer will install controller and sensor for the system. The differential controller is the brains of solar system. It works with two sensors. One of it located at the hottest part of the system which is collector outlet. The other one is located at the coldest part of the system which is the bottom of the tank. Step 8: Pump and Valves A Solar Water Heating System consists of a variety of components. System pump also called as circulator is a critical component for Solar Water Heating System. Its function is to circulate the fluid from the tank to the collector. Then the fluid gains heat in the solar collector and return to the storage tank. Besides that, check valve, drain valves and isolation valves also the components to install. Step 9: Pipe Insulation The last step for installation process is pipe insulation. It is to prevent heat loss from the piping, so pipe insulation is installed on both external and internal system piping. After that, installer should provide the owner of the Solar Water Heater a system operation and maintenance manual. 2.7 A Comparison between Solar Water Heater and Electric Water Heater Solartech (Summer) CX – Direct Heating* Panasonic DH – 3HE1M** Panasonic DH – 3HT1M** Type of Water Heater Solar Electric Electric Power Consumption 2.4 KW (back up heating element) 3.6 KW 3.6 KW Selling Price / unit RM 5,490.00 RM 639.00 RM 449.00 Selling Price (2 units) RM 1,278 RM 1,098 Initial Cost (selling price + installation cost) RM 5,690.00 RM 1428.00 RM 1248.00 Warranty (full warranty) 10 years 1 year 1 year Operation Cost / year RM 170.25 RM 1,109.67 RM 1,109.67 Operation Cost (10 years) RM 1702.50 RM 11,096.70 RM 11,096.70 Total Cost (initial cost + operation cost) for 10 years without maintenance cost RM 7,392.50 RM 12,374.70 RM 12,194.70 Environment Impact free CO2 CO2 Table 2. 1 Comparison between Solar Water Heater and Electric Water Heater * Description is given by Solartech Sales Service Sdn Bhd ** Description is given by Pansasonic Malaysia Sdn Bhd The table above shows the comparison between Solar Water Heater and Electric Water Heater. In the table, it is shown that the total cost for 10 years, environment impact and their operation cost. Firstly, for family consists of 6 persons considered as the study in the table. They installed 2 units of electric water heater in the toilets for their house or a unit of Solar Water Heater. Their need for hot water is 3 hours per day. Besides that, the study is estimating the total cost for 10 years. 2.7.1 Total Cost Method Intention in this study is to let the operation time (N) of a system be variable to find the operation life of the systems. The total cost will be adapted in the study because it allows the comparison between the systems for 10 years time. In general, the total cost of a system can be expressed as the following equation: Total Cost = Initial Cost + Operation Cost( 10years) 2.7.1.1 Operation Cost (OC) For Electric Water Heater, operation cost is the electrical bill cost over the year to provide hot water needs of the family consists of 6 persons. But for Solar Water Heater, the operation cost is yearly electrical bill cost for the back up heating system. OCSWH = 12 months x NOCD x NOHs x price of electricity (RM/KWh) Where, OCSWH operation cost of Solar Water Heater; NOCD number of cloudy day per month; NOHS number of hours switched back up heating system. OCEWH = 365 days x NOH x price of electricity (RM/KWh) Where, OCEWH operation cost of Electric Water Heater; NOH number of hours electricity is used to provide hot water. 2.7.2 Summary of the values of the parameter Solartech (Summer) CX – Direct Heating Panasonic DH – 3HE1M (2 units) Panasonic DH – 3HT1M (2 units) Initial Cost = RM 5,690.00 OC = 12 months x NOCD x NOHs x price of  electricity (RM/KWh) = 12 months x 7 days/month x 3 hours x (2.4 KW x (RM 0.218 + RM 0.345)/2) = RM 170.25 Total Cost = Initial Cost + (OC x 10 years) = RM 5,690.00 + (RM 170.25 x 10) = RM 7,392.50 Initial Cost = RM 1,278.00 OC = 365 days x NOH x price of electricity (RM/KWh) = 365 days x 3 hours x (3.6 KW x (RM 0.218 + RM 0.345)/2) = RM 1,109.67 Total Cost = Initial Cost + (OC x 10 years) = RM 1,278.00 + (RM 1,109.67 x 10) = RM 12,374.70 Initial Cost = RM 1,098.00 OC = 365 days x NOH x price of electricity (RM/KWh) = 365 days x 3 hours x (3.6 KW x (RM 0.218 + RM 0.345)/2) = RM 1,109.67 Total Cost = Initial Cost + (OC x 10 years) = RM 1,098.00 + (RM 1,109.67 x 10) = RM 12,194.70 Table 2. 2 Summary of the values of the paramater From the table above, it is shown that Solar Water Heater is more economical and more attractive than the Electric Water Heater in long term. It is better for the family to use Solar Water Heater when compared to Electrical Water Heater. Besides that, it is more benefits to install Solar Water Heater because of long term economical benefits, environment friendly and a way to avoid from the problem of increasing electricity bill and increasing family size. References Ong, K. S. 1994. Solar Water Heater. Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia: University of Malaya. Gordon, J. 2005. Solar Enegy The State of The Art. London: James James (Science Publishers) Ltd. Ondrey, G. 2009. ‘Solar’s Second Coming’. Chemical Engineering. pg. 18. Pandey, J. L. and Banerjee M. K. 1998. ‘Energy Conservation with the Use of Solar Selective Coatings’. Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials. 45(1), pp. 16-24. Davidson, Jane, Wood and Byard. 1996. ‘Solar Hot Water for the Home’. Mechanical Engineering. pg. 60. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2009. ‘Economics of Domestic Solar Hot Water Heating Systems in Malaysia’. 26(1), pp. 20-28 Progress Report Task to be completed Second Year Semester 1 (Week)   July 05, 2009 July 11, 2009 July 12, 2009 July 18, 2009 July 19, 2009 July 25, 2009 July 26, 2009 Aug 01, 2009 Aug 02, 2009 Aug 08, 2009 Aug 09, 2009 Aug 15, 2009 Aug 16, 2009 Aug 22, 2009 Aug 23, 2009 Aug 29, 2009 Confirm Title Finalise Proposal 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Literature review Proposed Work Schedule Actual Work Schedule Task to be completed Second Year Semester 1 (Week) July 05, 2009 July 11, 2009 July 12, 2009 July 18, 2009 July 19, 2009 July 25, 2009 July 26, 2009 Aug 01, 2009 Aug 02, 2009 Aug 08, 2009 Aug 09, 2009 Aug 15, 2009 Aug 16, 2009 Aug 22, 2009 Aug 23, 2009 Aug 29, 2009 Confirm Title Finalise Proposal 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Literature review Every element had been done on time according to the proposed work progress except Chapter 1 Introduction. It should be done before August 01, 2009, but in stead it was done on August 22, 2009. The reason for the delay because of Introduction is revised proposal, so I decided to postpone it until the same with the date of completion for literature review. For Literature Review, I started it a week earlier than the proposed work schedule due to I need longer time to search information from TARC library and internet. Besides that, I also needed to get the quotation from supplier so that I started my literature review earlier. Luckily, everything in progress and I finished my literature review on time. My supervisor, Mr. Teh Bin Sin checked my works on August 20, 2009 and I printed out all the chapters for interim submission. Report on Changes Involved Date (Week) Issue of Changes Issue of Amendment July 05, 2009 – July 11,2009 Project Title ‘A Comparison between Solar Water Heating System and Electric Water Heater’ changed to ‘A Study into Solar Water Heating System in Malaysian Homes’ The project title changed because ‘A Study into Solar Water Heating System in Malaysian Homes’ is more specific and to fulfill requirement of supervisor. July 26, 2009 – August 01, 2009 Objectives ‘To compare the initial cost, price, durability, maintenance cost and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater’ changed to ‘To compare the initial cost, price, durability, and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater’ Due to the comment from supplier, which is maintenance cost is difficult to calculate or estimate for the following 10 years for water heater, so I decided to take out the comparison of maintenance cost in objective.