Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Information for Decision Making Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Information for Decision Making - Essay Example The research methodology used in the paper is both qualitative and quantitative. Sampling has played an important role in data collection process. The sampling was supported through questionnaire. Data analysis provides the results based on findings. Cost and time table further emphasises on the need of budget and time for the research. Conclusion and recommendation gives an overview of the limitations and important of technology in an organisation. Table of Content Introduction 5 Background 6 Problem Definition 6 Research Objective 7 Research Design 8 Sampling 9 Data Collection 9 Questionnaire 10 Data Processing and Analysis 11 Reporting 12 Cost and Timetable Activities 12 Conclusion & Recommendation 13 Reference 15 Bibliography 18 Introduction Marketing research can be defined as the process of analysing, collecting and devising the required information. Marketing research is an important procedure for any company wanting to market its product in a new territory (Burns & Bush, 2007 , p.7). Marketing research methodology involves the explanation of the problem and the process to find the desired solution. The cause of problem and the research methodology plan are directly proportional to each other. Marketing research is an important component to collect the desired market information. Marketing research helps in identifying the problems and opportunities by linking the consumer and the marketer. It further evaluates and enhances the understanding of the marketing process and helps in finding the methods to make certain activities of marketing more presentable and effective (Schmidt & Hollensen, 2007, p. 19). Marketing research helps an organisation to modify the marketing-mix and also supports the activities which lead to the customer satisfaction. It is an important tool to make sure that both demand and supply are being taken care of by an organisation. In a broader sense it helps to develop a good equation between the customers and the suppliers (Bradley, 2 007, p. 4). Background The Royal Mint is the worlds oldest and the leading mint exporter. Founded over 1,000 years ago the Royal Mint has achieved the status of national treasure (Royal Mint, 2012). It is not only known for its art of coin making but high quality and craftsmanship makes it a worldwide leader. The Royal Mint is not subjugated to coin making only but is associated with craftsmanship of medals as well. UK might be the home to the company but it has its presence in more than 50 countries. The company which makes coins for UK has been roped in to make commemorative medals for the Olympics 2012 to be held in London. Over 1000 years of history and maintenance of the high quality artistry has made the company most sought after by different countries around the world. Technology has further improved the company’s structure and functionality. Technology has helped the company to keep a database of the customers and also build customer relationship through CRM system. P roblem Definition The problem definition is related to identifying the broad topic associated with research. The broad topic in relation to the research can be the problem faced by the Royal Mint in achieving the target of making medals for the Olympics 2012 along with meeting the deadline. The broad topic is further divided into narrow topic. The narrow topic is more related to the problems which can have an impact on the broad topic of the

Monday, October 28, 2019


Freedom Short Story from Tkam After Tom Robinsons Trial Essay As I sat outside watching the other inmates, a gentle breeze caressed my face, providing relief from the sun’s hot rays. I was used to the heat, but maybe it was the circumstances that I was in that made it unbearable. I could see that my fellow inmates felt the same as they lazed about, their skin glistening with sweat, their shirts clinging to their backs. ‘Guilty until proven innocent’ rang angrily in my mind when I saw the number of Negroes compared to white people incarcerated. The amount of court cases, as well as families, jobs and lives, lost due to our colour was innumerable. Half of us didn’t even commit a crime worth being sent to jail for, but here we are! I wiped my forehead with an already sticky hand and surveyed my surroundings in an effort to shake off the contemptuous thought. The dirt oval consisted of some simple worn out exercising equipment, their hinges squeaking in protest with very movement; a few withering trees dying in the midday heat, two lookouts sitting on the inside of the perimeter where the prison guards patrolled the prisoners and a barbed wire fence which enclosed the space in an ominous hug. I thought pensively about my situation as I kicked the dusty ground vehemently, scuffing my already torn prison boots in the process. The rising hopelessness that I had kept bottled up throughout the court case, believing that with Mr Finch on my side I would definitely be acquitted, quickly vanished, much like the specks of dirt that I had kicked up had disappeared, carried away with the breeze of reality. I observed the bluejays on the nearby trees, warbling their little hearts out with not a care in the world, unaware of the injustice that had occurred. I was being punished for a crime that I had not committed, accused by a woman whom I have assisted for nigh a year! The court case didn’t just affect me it affected my family as well and I don’t want them to suffer because of it. What will they do? How will Helen watch the chillun’ and work? They don’t deserve this! My family needs me. It was already a struggle to bring food to the table everyday, and now with most of our income ripped away, I can’t bring myself to fantasise what my family would have to suffer. Would Helen have to starve to keep the chillun’ physically satisfied? I’ve prayed for them every night confined in the dungeon, praying that God would help them through this adversity. Ms Mayella obviously doesn’t realise that her decision to accuse me affects my family just as much as it affects me. She used the only ticket that would guarantee her victory over the court case, which would prove her innocent from the despicable crime that she had committed – her race. The inequity displayed towards Negroes always perplexed me. We came from the same ancestors, Adam and Eve, but somehow, white people were born having more rights than others, perceived as superior to others, more moral than others. I should’ve conceded that I was a black man living in a white man’s world, and no matter what I did to prove myself innocent, there would be no justice for me. I hate how all white people acrimoniously conclude that all Negroes lie, all Negroes are basically immoral beings and all Negroes aren’t to be trusted around women, as Mr Finch mentioned. How can people be so shallow, so malevolent and so blind? They’re living a lie! How dare America call themselves a democracy when they can’t even treat their own people equally, lowering our rights, our standards and our lives! The act of incarcerating all black people for almost everything that we do is a paradox to their self-proclaimed government. It is overdue to set things straight, but there is no better time than now to change the way Negroes are treated. I am not going to wait for someone else to take justice, as God knows when that is going to come. Justice is in my hands. The only possible way that I can achieve this is to run. They’re going to kill me nonetheless so I’m already a dead man walking, but I’m not dying knowing that I just sat there letting them persecute me while knowing that I did nothing to prevent this precedent from occurring again to other Negro families. I must run. I quickly rose from the bench which I was seated on and began jogging the perimeter of the oval, keen to find an escape route to freedom. I took a quick glance at the patrollers- they were watching us inattentively, their faces impassive and eyes glazed over, contenting themselves in their current daydreams. I scrutinized the fence for any weakness. There were several places where the fence sagged, but all seemed intact. I searched for other possible escape routes, my eyes slowly taking in every detail of the oval, but when failing to find any, I approached an oak tree to ponder over my next move, when flashbacks of my family and previous life overwhelmed me. There were many oak trees in my life – in my backyard, on the sidewalk, at work but I never knew until now that they were so prominent in my life. There were oak trees that my children loved to climb on, loved to hide in, loved to have mini adventures in. There were oak trees that I watched from my kitchen window as their branches were softly tickled by the wind, which Helen used to sit under and pensively think about life’s uncertainties, which grew and thrived with my family. There were oak trees which provided me a job, which I spent countless hours climbing up and down laboriously picking acorns, which earned me money to support my family. My heart ached with sadness when I thought back to those wonderful memories, making me miss my family even more than I originally did. Helen would probably be working strenuously to support the children now without my help. What this event has put my family through is unthinkable. I can’t prevent what I am currently putting them through, but they must understand that if I do no try to get free I will be killed nonetheless. Everyone deserves to have equal rights, and I am going to be the person bringing justice. I am not going home after my jail sentence knowing that I did nothing to prevent further injustice from occurring to thousands of other Negroes. I want to be able to tell my chillun’ that I didn’t just sit there being persecuted, allowing other Negroes to be persecuted as well, as the pain that discrimination puts us through throughout our lives is unbearable. I want to be a role model for them; to be an example for fighting for what is right. Even though doing so may be dangerous and may lead to death, bringing justice to every race is worth losing a life for. In a sudden burst of adrenaline and surprising confidence I sprinted as fast as my legs could carry me to the barbed wire fence and began climbing. I almost leaped backwards in surprise as my bare skin came into contact with the burning metal that had been basking in the sun all day, but my mind was set on my goal, and so I ignored the acrid pain and scaled the fence. Consecutively, shouts of surprise and disbelief spread through the prisoners, and, as if my actions brought them back to life, the angry voices of the prison guards soon followed. Hollering warnings and portentous threats, the patrollers showed no evidence that a few seconds ago they were practically lifeless, but their efforts were wasted as it proved completely futile. With my prior experience climbing trees for Mr Deas, I quickly adapted to my situation and climbed, my hand and feet working simultaneously to make up for my deprivation. My eyes darted to elusive spaces between the barbs and my hand quickly followed suit, with my legs climbing after them. The barbs clung and sliced at my arms and clothes as the patrollers’ threats became more ominous, their cries climbing to a climatic forte, ineffective at impeding my pilgrimage. The word justice was repeated over and over in my mind, instilling a new hope in me, encouraging me to continue climbing. This failed when a gunshot shattered my tranquillity. A bolt of pure panic shot through me, causing my heart to thrash against my ribs as I realised the severity of my situation. I lost my footing, dangling in mid-air for a second, but immediately found another foothold and scaled the fence even faster than before. Seeing that the gunshot failed to stop me, several more shots were fired into the air, counterproductive as it only made me move twice as fast. ‘Quicker! Quicker! ’ my body seemed to holler at me, dissatisfied with the speed that I was travelling. My stomach started to twist with despair, my newfound hope abandoning me, slowly overtaken by doubt then a bullet whistled past my ear inches from my face. My hand began shaking uncontrollably from pure fear. My lungs were screaming for air, the spikes were screaming for blood, but my scream for justice overpowered them all. More deathly bullets whistled past, when one successfully tore through my leg. An explosion of pain raked my leg, and immediately I felt warm blood gush out of my pulsing wound. I was almost over the fence though! Clenching my teeth, I reached between the razor wire. The screams and hollering of the prisoners were vociferous, but nothing mattered as the second bullet hit my crippled shoulder. It immediately burst into flames as I started sweating uncontrollably, the back of my shirt soaked with blood, clinging to me. In a last ditch effort, I hauled myself between the razor wire to the other side of the fence leading to freedom. A third bullet tore through my thigh, sending me rolling to the ground in a bloodied heap while other bullets whizzed past and wounded me. The shrill roar in my ears gradually ceased to a dull hum, and dizzying black splotches began crowding my vision. The last thought that left my mind was: Freedom.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Analysis of A&P, by John Updike :: Essays on A&P

I quit! These words can be attached to so many things in life. At times in life things seem to be different then they really are, for instance the thrill and the excitement of having a summer job or even successfully getting a first job. There are certain moments in a person’s life that will always have an impact on them one could call this a definitive moment or an epiphany. In the short story A&P by John Updike the main character Sammy has an epiphany in that he realizes that a moral line has been crossed in his working environment. The story is a simple conflict followed by definitive action short story. It’s a wonderful portrayal of what a young man thinks and what he will stand for and what he will not. The fascinating part is how Sammy describes the young ladies as they enter the convenience store. Updike states â€Å"She was a chunky kid, with a good tan and a sweet broad soft-looking can with those two crescents of white just under it, where the sun never seems to hit, at the top of the backs of her legs†. Sammy is only talking about one of the three young ladies in this description. The descriptive words in the story are very thought provoking; Updike refers to the girls derrieres as â€Å"cans†. Imagery and symbolism are used frequently through out the story; Sammy describes the shoppers inside the A&P Updike uses this description â€Å"sheep pushing their carts down the aisles†. Updike uses Imagery to tell you where exactly where the A&P is located in the town, the lay out of the store and how Sammy’s co workers have a say in what he does and his work routine. Sammy is a nineteen year old man; he is no longer considered a minor by today’s’ society. He is trying to find out what he is doing working at a grocery store during the summer, in his mind he should be down on the beach checking out the ladies. The ocean seems to be just another aspect of the town, nothing too special. The following passage supports this Updike states â€Å"people in this town haven’t seen the ocean in twenty years†. Tourism is what drives ocean towns, and communities. It’s a simple matter of taxation the more money a city can make off of the natural or man made attractions the better off the city is.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Death and Women in Sadegh Hedayat’s “The Blind Owl” Essay

INTRODUCTION Sadeq Hedayat’s ‘The Blind Owl’ is one of the most important literary works in Persian language. The original Persian text of The Blind Owl, marked â€Å"not for sale in Iran,† appeared as a mimeographed publication in India in 1937. It was assumed at the time that Hedayat feared the repressive rule of Reza Shah; he feared especially that with the publication of this work he might have violated the established norms. He was aware that the propagation of a message that focused on the strangulation of the Iranian people, on the denial of individual human rights, and on the need for individual enlightenment would not remain undetected for ever. The central theme of the story is an attempt toward the resolution of the writer’s dualistic experiences of the real versus unreal, the sensual against the spiritual and death as opposed to life. Underlying his problems are sexual fear, association of women with death (a common theme in literature) and disgust af filiated with death and women. Perhaps no other modern Iranian writer has been claimed by his countrymen more than Sadegh Hedayat has. A tale of one man’s isolation, the novel contains a maze of symbols, recurring images, social commentary, allusions to opium-induced states, contemplations of the human condition, interjections on art, and references to literary and religious texts—all of which have, for decades, made it fertile ground for critical interpretation. The most long-standing theory was espoused by the Iranian Communist Party (Tudeh), with which Hedayat for a time sympathized. The Tudeh’s claim was that the black mood in the book is an allusion to life under Reza Shah, who ruled Iran from 1925 until 1941. But as scholar Homa Katouzian points out in Sadeq Hedayat: The Life and Legend of an Iranian Writer, while Hedayat did oppose the shah’s tyrannical reign, the book is a far more universal statement about alienation. Often compared to the work of Franz Kafka (whom Hedayat admired), The Blind Owl also brings to mind Fernando Pessoa’s The Book of Disquiet in its stark meditation on dejection. ‘â€Å"There are sores which slowly erode the mind in solitude like a kind of canker,† begins the book, and in the pages that ensue we glimpse this solitude, through the narrator’s room, which â€Å"stands upon the ruins of thousands of ancient houses†¦ like a tomb†; through the landscape of â€Å"crouching, accursed trees,† between which there are â€Å"ash-grey houses† where â€Å"no living creature could ever have dwelt†; and through the narrator’s estrangement from the â€Å"rabble-men† who bear â€Å"an expression of greed on their faces, in pursuit of money and sexual satisfaction. An ethereal girl appearing throughout offers hope. She is the image the narrator paints on his pen cases, a vision he falls in love with, and the portrait on an ancient jar, inside â€Å"an almond-shaped panel† (perhaps a reference to a mandorla, an almond-shaped contour found around images of Mary—the almond representi ng virgin birth). But the girl has a â€Å"double nature,† resurfacing as the narrator’s cunning mother, and, later, as his promiscuous wife. SYMBOLISM OF DEATH AND WOMEN IN SADEGH HEDAYAT’S THE BLIND OWL The word manic is important in connection to the story. The narrator wants the ethereal woman to remain in the world of death. Furthermore, she must remain out of touch and not to be seen by others. Later on, when the ethereal woman and the mother image become the same, one realizes why the narrator is so pre-occupied with woman as a focus of the problem of life and death. Mother is the birth giver. The narrator is mystified by the strange psychic state of his mother. The mother withdraws and there is an intense need to find her. The ethereal woman becomes the mother. How could anyone bear a sex encounter with her, to enter her body? Therefore any suggestion of love intimacy with women in the sexual sense must be avoided. For him it is not possible. At this point, sexual love becomes the focus of the collapse of security and of being. A tendency for suicide arises when he believes that a world in which it is not possible to distinguish the reality from the painted appearance is exists. This weariness with life is a symbol of schizoid suicide, which leads into withdrawal into death, into a ghostly world. In the unconscious, the narrator believes that the corruption of relationships through sexual contact brings nothingness. This again indicates the presence of a schizoid element in his mind. A person with a schizoid mind seeks isolation. Union with a woman will not take him into the path of separateness, so he buries the woman. Now he can be free. He is alone but alive. In the process, he is denouncing the â€Å"inferior† half of himself, the woman in him, the part that he fears may corrupt and make him diseased. He expresses the intolerable perplexity of woman as a focus of appearance and reality. But this distrust of women is not misogyny. It is a result of profound pondering of problems of human nature and being. Hedayat’s association of women with death, his inability to deal with realism through the horror of the tragic, and a paranoid attitude accompanying his inability to tolerate and accept his own mortal reality indicates a form of dissociation from reality which serves as a clue to his existence problem. In â€Å"the Blind Owl†, the writer fails to establish existential authenticity and freedom. This is because in his struggle through re-birth, his view of self, others and the world in general is dominated by his rejection of his female elements of being and knowing. Such rejection is mainly due to his schizoid problems, but it is also magnified by the prevailing attitudes toward women in his native country. CONCLUSION To take you inside such a mind in such a brief book is an achievement up there with Poe and Kafka- to perceive the hell of isolation within one’s own head is to show how the narrator’s madness is an endlessly coherent vision of the world. It corresponds to the way that he sees the world- and that vision is not inconsistent or inadequate in its own terms. He functions as a system of epistemology, processing new information, but never progressing and never learning. A feminist critique might stop there- but I don’t think we should- I think there is more to say here about the way he thinks of women and the way that that relates to the way he thinks about truth. The male intellectuals of the period and long after accepting principles of equality and freedom for both the sexes and at the same time growing up with the traditional notions of good, non sexual, virginal woman no doubt would have had problems coping with the new image. They did not know whether to be on their knees to her in reverence to her as the good mother figure, or full of sensual contempt for her as the whore. Ultimately, these men would be in need of her presence or impelled to destroy her. Hedayat would have been no exception. His preference for the spiritual, non-sexual contact with women can also be attributed to his inability to cope with the emergence of the new woman. The female characters therefore may be seen as dramatizations of endopsychic situations, to be understood as attempts to express the writer’s attitudes to women and to his own female element, and to embody these attitudes to the female knowledge in order to deal with problems of identity and being. In turn, his cultural experiences and the masculinity of the society in which he lives also influence such dramatizations. In a masculine society, such as Iran, a great deal of the contemporary culture needs to be explained in terms of the development of modes of false strength, which are based on a certain male dynamic. Where there is a deep insecurity of existence, this male dynamic is employed as a substitute for the female element of â€Å"being†. In these societies reality is normally located in the masculine paradigm, in which all female elements of being and knowing have been eradicated. In these situations, men will have problems accepting their culturally unacceptable and inferior female element. It should also be noted that men of Hedayats’ era, for the first time in the Iranian history, witnessed the transformation of the traditional Iranian women into modern twentieth century women—the kind who joined the ranks of the political parties, rallied, had lovers; had abortions and even bore illegitimate children. They also challenged the bipolar image of women as the virtuous v ersus women as prostitutes. REFRENCES _ Ghotbi, M.I. This is The Blind Owl. Tehran: Tabesh P, 1934. _See : . _ See :The Blind Owl by Sadegh Hedayat , . _ See : Campbel, J., The Masks of God, Condor Books, London Press, 1973. _ Jung, C.G. 1950, Psychology and literature in The spirit in Man, art and literature Ark Edition Publication, London, 1967. _ 1920, â€Å"Trauma of Birth† ,Dover Publication, 1993. _ The Double ,The university of North Carolina Press 1971, KARNAC, London, 1989. _ See : . _ See : _ The Era of Reza Shah.† Washington: Library of Congress, 1998: . Yarshater, Ehsan, ed. Sadegh Hedayat: An Anthology. _Colorado: Westview P, 1979. _See :> . _ Mannani, Manijeh. â€Å"Modern Middle Eastern Literature.† Department of Comparative Literature Lecture Series, Department of Comparative Literature, University of Alberta, September 1998. _Rahimieh, Nasrin. â€Å"A Systemic Approach to Modern Persian Prose Fiction.† World Literature Today 63 (1989): 15-19. _Beard, Michael. Hedayat’s Blind Owl as a Western Novel. New Jersey: Princeton UP, 1990. _Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. Trans. Constance Farrington. New York: Grove P, 1963. _ ale Ahmad, Jalal. â€Å"Iranian Education and the University.† Trans. Michael Hillmann. Iranian Society: An Anthology of Writings. By Jalal ale Ahmad. Ed. Michael Hillmann. Kentucky: Mazda Publishers, 1982. 116-21. _ ale Ahmad, Jalal. â€Å"Epilogue.† Trans. Michael Hillmann. Iranian Society: An Anthology of Writing. Jalal ale Ahmad. Ed. Michael Hillmann. Kentucky: Mazda Publishers, 1982. 143-48. _ Yasamine C. Coulter, â€Å"A Comparative Post-Colonial Approa ch to Hedayat’s The Blind Owl†. _ Comparative Literature and Culture 2.3 (2000):

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Jem Finch Coming of Age Essay

Mental change is another type of change that Jem goes through. Jemstart to think like an adult as he gets older in the book. He shows it at thetrial of Tim Robinson when the jury is in the jury room and he starts to talk toReverend Sykes. He starts saying thing about the trial and Reverend Sykes askhim not to talk like that in front of Scout. Which shows that he knows whathe is talking about. (see page 208-209). There is also the time when he had togo and read to Mrs. Dubose which he later finds out about her drug addictionwhich he fully understands. So those are ways he changes mentally. Jem changes physically in many ways in the story. His hair stuck upbehind and down in front, and I wondered if it would it would ever look like aman’s-maybe if he shaved it off and started over, his hair would grow backneatly in place. His eyebrows were becoming heavier, and I noticed a newslimness about his body. He was growing taller. (225) There was also when Jemtried to show Scout his hair on his chest which shows him growing upphysically. (see page225) So these things show how he changes physically tobecome more of a man as he hits puberty. Another change that Jem goes through is his feeling toward himself andhow he starts to feel better about himself. When he gets home one day fromschool he shows that he is all confident about making the football team and howhappy he is to be old enough to play. But even though he doesn’t get to playhe still remains happy with just being the waterboy and just being able to bethere watching. During the trial ‘It was Jem’s turn to cry. ‘ which shows thathe was not afraid to just let his feeling be show even though most peoplewouldn’t have. 212) So these show that Jem can feel good about himself andalso feel bad but he can still let it out if he has to. One of the most important change that Jem goes through is taking andadult role in Scouts life. He walks her to the school play and he protects herfrom Bob Ewell when he tries to kill them. This is the main one because if Jemdid try and stop Ewell Scout could have died and it would have show that Jemdidn’t really have an adult role. Also another reason is when Jem tells Dillthat he shouldn’t touch Boo’s house because if Boo kills him no one will bearound to keep an eye on Scout. 13) As you can see those where all ways that Jem shows his coming of age inthe book To Kill A Mocking Bird by Harper Lee. By changing socially he becomesmore likable. By changing emotionally with himself he becomes more confident. By changing mentally he starts to under stand more compicated things thatbefore he would have never knew about. By changing physically he becomes moreof a man and is more older. And finally by changing to be more of an adult tohis sister he becomes more aware of what an adult has to face.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Sulfur Hexafluoride, the Anti-Helium

Sulfur Hexafluoride, the Anti-Helium Sulfur hexafluoride is a non-toxic, invisible gas that you can use to perform interesting chemistry demonstrations. Breathe it in and make your voice much deeper when you talk. Pour it into a container and float an airplane or a ship on nothing. In a way, it is like the anti-helium gas, because while helium is about six times lighter than air, sulfur hexafluoride is six times heavier. Sulfur Hexafluoride Facts Inorganic compound with a chemical formula SF6Non-polar gasNon-toxic, odorless, colorlessnNn-flammable at room temperature and pressureOctahedral geometryPoorly soluble in water; soluble in nonpolar organic solventsDensity of 6.13 g/L at sea level Fun Things to Try with Sulfur Hexafluoride Float Your Boat: Pour sulfur hexafluoride into an aquarium or large beaker. It is heavier than air, so it will sink. You can float light objects on the invisible gas, such as a paper airplane or a boat made from aluminum foil. If you use a cup to scoop up some of the sulfur hexafluoride and dump it into a foil boat, you can sink it.Talk or Sing with a Deep Voice: Sulfur hexafluoride is denser than air, so sound travels through it more slowly. If you breathe in a lungful of sulfur hexafluoride, your voice will become much deeper. Even though sulfur hexafluoride is non-toxic, you need to use care when performing this demonstration to avoid hypoxia and fainting (the same caution applies to helium). Dont breathe the gas for prolonged periods of time. Where You Can Get Sulfur Hexafluoride Sulfur hexafluoride is a specialty gas, used in medicine for eye surgery and ultrasound imaging; in industry as a tracer gas, dielectric, and as an etchant; and mixed with argon as an insulator between layers of windows. It has enough uses that you may be able to find it at a store that sells specialty gasses (try the yellow pages), such as oxygen, argon, and nitrogen.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Human Resource Planning, Classification, and Selection Essay Example

Human Resource Planning, Classification, and Selection Essay Example Human Resource Planning, Classification, and Selection Essay Human Resource Planning, Classification, and Selection Essay Human Resource Planning, Classification, and Selection Name: Course: Institution: Instructor: Date: Human Resource Planning, Classification, and Selection Introduction Employees are the most valuable resources in an organization since they are the determinant in the success of an organization. Therefore, it is important that employers attract and hire the most qualified staff for the particular jobs available in the organization. Hence, this calls for having a good human resource planning, classification and selection. Therefore, human resource planning is of utmost importance in order for an organization to accomplish its goals and objectives. These can be done through human resource planning that ensures to assess the tasks that need to be done, and selecting the right people to do the work. Once the human resource personnel have this in mind, an action plan for guiding them in accomplishing these requirements is needed. Literature Review Since competition among private and public sectors has intensified for the last two to three decades, there has been an increased need for new strategies on tackling the human resource planning issues. This has seen a strategic shift in the field of human resource planning that reflects the continuing changes taking place in the labor market conditions. These changes in the labor force provide for another context of human resource strategy and planning for long-term future. â€Å"Longer-term changes in the employment relationship, from relational to transactional employment †¦ provide another important context for HR strategy and a way to view the future† (Gubman, 2004). This calls for more participation of the human resource department on the issues of the organization to guarantee success. Under this heading on planning, classifying and selecting, three topics addressed are human resource planning, classification of positions, and selection of staff. Human resource planning is one of the most important processes in any organization that seeks to develop a strategy of identifying the organizational needs concerning the workforce and develops a plan of achieving those needs (Cayer, 2004). Human resource planning is very crucial in determining the kind of staff that the organization will need as well as the means to get them. In addition, human resource planning will ensure accountability in the whole process of hiring and developing staff that is responsible and qualified for accomplishing the set goals of the organization. With planning, organizations are able to realize their needs, such as the training needs, job needs as well as development needs. While the problem is known, finding a solution is quite easy, and all organizations can do it quite easily. The public and private sector has been competing to get the best staff for a long time. For instance, in the 1990s, this competition was stiff due to low unemployment rate where qualified people were not in plenty like today. During this time, the public sector was viewed from a negative perspective and a poor public image due to lack of integrity by those in power. Therefore, in order to compete, there was need for a strategy that would ensure the selection was done right to attract only the qualified personnel. This led to the establishment of a system that would ensure to attract quality staff that would meet the goals and objectives of the organization. Faced by a need to compete with the private sector in attracting the best staff, the public sector human resource department was under pressure to utilize continuous human resource planning that would ensure hiring of only the qualified staff. In addition to the labor available in the market, and relevant knowledge in the field needed, it was necessary to have training and development of the employees in order to impart them with more knowledge that would make them even more fit for their jobs. Therefore, effective human resource planning should contribute to attracting, developing and retaining of talented employees. It should also measure, reward performance, engage and align skills with jobs (Gubman, 2004). Finally, human resource planning should continue control functions within human resource such as ensuring cost effectiveness. These are some of the main functions that human resource department seeks to achieve all the time in order to have seamless flow and relationships withi n the workplace. This are the main functions that human resource planning should address at all times, and none of them should be left out. Addressing these challenges ensures that during selection the organization will hire the best and most qualified personnel to fill the positions available. In addition, the staff an also ran Classification of positions is yet another topic revolving around human resource especially in the public sector, which is a traditional approach in human resource. Classification of positions aims at classifying jobs into different categories or agencies with the same tasks and responsibilities into certain categories. For instance, jobs with the same roles and responsibilities will be classified into a certain group of jobs in order to identify them (Cayer, 2004). With position classification, there come some problems despite the size of the public sector. One of the problems is the need to maintain consistency from one agency to another since agencies are responsible for classifying the jobs according to schedules put in place. Another problem is the lack of attracting people with the right combination of skills needed since the positions are classified so narrowly. With too narrow classification of jobs, qualified staff could be hired, but lack the right combination of skills needed for the job (Stillman, 2009). Finally, the last problem is existing classification systems become outdated when they are not reviewed regularly. This is because there are rapid changes in the labor markets as well as emerging technology and policies that require newer talent all the time (Cayer, 2004). Hence, monitoring of the classification systems should be done regularly. On the other hand, classification of positions has its advantages to the organization as long as they are well planned. When jobs are classified, this allows the management to in making of better decisions concerning the relationship between duties and the responsibilities of jobs and the administration. More so, when the jobs are classified, it is easier to have a better approach to organization of the activities in a hierarchical order that contributes to better coordination. The rationale for the classification is to have a basis for comparing the jobs. In addition, job classification allows management to manage the people and their positions (Cayer, 2004). For position classification to be effective to enable the personnel administration in managing the people, there has to be a job analysis in order to classify each job in its rightful position. A job analysis focuses on getting information concerning a job and the specific tasks involved in doing the job, skills and knowledge needed, qualifications and abilities needed in performing the particular tasks. This, the content, context and requirements of the job are analyzed, which will provide information concerning the jobs with similar characteristics that can be grouped or classified together. In addition, this can be used in ensuring to match each staff with a job that fits their abilities and skills. Information from a job analysis is also used in selecting of employees, identifying training and development needs, defining performance and establishing performance measures among other uses. Therefore, job analysis has to be conducted in position classification as well as selection o f staff. After the organization or agency used has done the above-mentioned function in planning, the final stage is identifying the right staff for the job, selection. Selection is very crucial part of human resource management since it determines who is hired and who is left out. The right people must be hired in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. Therefore, human resource in the public sector should ensure total fairness and transparency during selection to avoid corruption that could lead to hiring of unqualified people. This will be most important if the public sector is to compete with the private sector, which has outpaced the public center. Several issues have occurred in the public sector concerning lack of accountability in their selection of staff (Rainey, 2009). Employers in the public sector have been sued regularly for crimes committed by their employees (Walter, 1992). This fact has been based on their carelessness during selection where they do not access the applicants thoroughly before asserting they are qualified for the jobs. Most of these claims have insisted that the employers took no time in practicing proper care in the recruitment process, and other activities such as training and development of the employees as well as lack of proper supervision. Most of those who commit the crimes in organizations usually have a history of criminal behavior or violence. It is the responsibility of personnel management to ensure proper securitization of staff selected before such things occur in order to protect everybody in the workplace. Such negligence has become rampant in the public sector. This negligence occurs when an employer employs a person without proper investigation concerning their behavior in the past. This leads to employing of people that might put the safety of others in the workplace in danger. Therefore, if the employer has failed in investigating the applicant before selecting them for employment, they are liable for anything that might happen such as the person causing harm to others (Walter, 1992). In order to eliminate such incidents, the employer should consult the referees of the applicant, as well as the previous employer about the behavior of the applicant and background information to ensure fitness and integrity. Sometimes this can be attributed to the lack of regular recruiting considering with government institutions employment is permanent and the likelihood of loosing a job is hard. Hence, there is hardly any employee leaving the job. Hence, number of times recruitment happens is minimal, a well as bureaucracy that requires following certain rules that might not be quite usable currently. In addition, considering that such institutions tend to recruit many people at the time, there could be hardly any time for going through all such procedures for all the applicants. This makes it hard to find out if a person has behaviors that could suggest anything that might not be good. However, even with reference to other people and referees provided, one could not be sure they are all telling the truth. With such lawsuits, it is up to the personnel management to ensure there is continuous planning of human resource needs of the organization in order to identify any needs for the organization. With continuous planning in human resource, there is a guarantee that such people can be identified as early as possible before they engage in any crime. This could be crucial in preventing criminal behaviors through prevention by taking the right measures such as training them and warning them. Human resource planning should be exercised in all organizations since they deal with the most important resource of the organization, the employees, who also happen to be quite sensitive as well as unpredictable. Unlike other resources of the organization, the employees are the most vsluable, since hthey make their own juddgments and decisions Conclusion An organization’s success is directly related to the wellness of its labor capital. The labor capital provides the expertise that turns materials into products, and procedures into services as well as conducting all the operations in the workplace. Without a labor force, there cannot be any organization. It is to this reason that human resource planning is so crucial in any organization. The policies and practices of human resource play a big role in shaping the attitudes behavior and motivation of the employees. In addition, planning ensures that to identify the needs of the employees and ways of meeting them. On the other hand, position classification will ensure to indicate the tasks of each staff in their jobs to ensure performance can be evaluated. Finally, selection is very crucial in ensuring the right staff for the organization is hired. Without such planning, the organization can be in no position to get the best people for achieving the goals and objectives. For the pubic sector, it should embrace the changes taking place in order to compete with the private sector in attracting the best staff (Noe, 2006).. This can only be done through continuous human resource planning. References Cayer, N. J. (2004). Public Personnel Administration (4th Ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Gubman, Ed. (2004). HR strategy and planning: From birth to business results. HR Human Resource Planning. Retrieved from Noe, R. A. (2006). Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage with OLC Card. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill. Walter, Robert J. (1992). Public employers’ potential liability from negligence in employment decisions. Public Administration Review. Retrieved from: Rainey, H.G. (2009). Understanding and Managing Public Organizations. New York, NY: John Wiley Sons. Stillman, R.J. (2009). Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Start Your Novel

Start Your Novel Start Your Novel Start Your Novel By Maeve Maddox Writers can be insecure creatures. For many, the thought of beginning a novel, a project requiring the production of from 60,000 to 100,000 words, can be overwhelming. For the writer who tends to linger over every sentence, the prospect can be especially daunting. This year’s NaNoWriMo has already begun, but it’s not too late for a writer who has been flirting with beginning a novel to register. Not everyone who participates in the online event completes the challenge, but taking part for just one or two weeks is an enlightening writing exercise. If you’ve never heard of NaNoWriMo, you may be the only writer who hasn’t. The acronym is for National Novel Writing Month. Don’t let the name fool you. The online event has become a worldwide phenomenon. The name will no doubt remain the same because it’s so much fun to say â€Å"naa-no-wry-mo.† The value of this worldwide writing exercise is that it encourages writers to recognize the duality of the writing process. Every writer wears two hats: the Creator’s hat and the Editor’s hat. (Nowadays most writers must don the Marketer’s hat as well, but that’s a subject for another post.) NaNoWriMo forces the writer to leave the Editor’s hat in the closet for 30 days. It’s a great discipline. Not everyone who signs up stays the course, but the experience of doing this kind of focused writing for even a week can teach a writer a lot. Go ahead. Jump in. Register for the 2013 NaNoWriMo and watch those words accumulate on your daily progress tracker. Even with a late start, you can expect to crank out 30,000 words or more by November 30. Your writing will be far from perfect, but you’ll have a draft, or at least the beginnings of one. A draft to a novelist is what a lump of clay is to the sculptor. Every novel begins with an imperfect draft. Once the draft is in hand, the writing can begin. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Fiction Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:70 Idioms with HeartCannot or Can Not?3 Types of Essays Are Models for Professional Writing Forms

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Professional & legal issues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Professional & legal issues - Essay Example But in the given condition, it is only me who is available to sort out these problems. Since the problem is very critical, it may cause loss of life if not sorted early. Now since I am well qualified and is aware of the technique involving the creation of the problem, it is my moral as well legal responsibility to make an attempt to solve it. Currently there are two parties involved. First one is the hospital and the next one is me. Any death caused due to the above mentioned problem will be regarded as a matter of negligence with responsibility being shared by the hospital and the person responsible for maintenance. The hospital has failed in obtaining an emergency kit which can be used in case of any technical problem. No electronic device can be considered for life time and must not be expected to perform throughout without any problem related to hardware as well as software (Ackers, 2005). Despite knowing the utility and need of the IT officers, the hospital has also failed in maintaining the proper number of the same so that whole functioning of the equipments can be achieved without a glitch. So the hospital can charged for going for cost cutt ing through less hiring of the people required for maintaining necessary elements so that proper functioning of the emergency services like the ICU can be maintained. ... charged on the ground of lapses which may finally risk the patient's life and any casualty will be considered as a consequence of negligence on the side of hospital. And since currently only I am available, so it's going to be me who will finally be penalized by the hospital and there is a possibility of getting accused in the case. Being an IT professional, I will try my best to sort out the problem in the quickest possible time. But at the same time, I will suggest the authorities to hire more professionals so that any situation like the one mentioned here can be averted. Since most of the programs are meant for live saving equipments so there should be at a group of developers for developing, maintaining and handling of the system and at least one of them must be available at any given time (Bott, 2005). In the given case study there is just one person who was involved in the development process and he was not present when the problem raised its ugly head. The development of software is generally done in different phases with proper documentation each of the phases must be done and properly stored. The development of each of the phase should be followed with a very precise software testing techniques. The same process should again be repeated once the whole software has been developed. But still none of us c an say the software developed is error free. There is a possibility of it not performing according to expected outcomes because of hardware delay or any other complexity. So the complete set of hardware with the software must be tested live with output being properly monitored. The hospital must have at least a pair of each of the device with one being maintained for emergent conditions. Moving on to software development processes, the software must be developed

Friday, October 18, 2019

Nuremberg Trial Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Nuremberg Trial - Movie Review Example The accusations against judges were based upon atrocities and murders of Germans inside Germany. The establishment of an American tribunal for the trail of four German judges was therefore constitutionally and legally unjustifiable. In the existing legal frame work structure, the accusations related to international war crimes are directly treated by International Court of Justice. The International Court of Justice has the international and approved authority, as per the charter of United Nations, duly signed by all the members of General Assembly. As per the charter, the International Court can summon the defendant irrespective of geographical affiliation, but this is possible only when complains are registered. This specific case is relevant to human rights violation, and therefore any country or party can register the case against these judges. The Nazi judges have to defend their judgment and actions in accordance with charter and legislation of the Human Rights Commission (U.S. District Court, 2005). It is important to state that legally no court in specific country can hear the applications in the favour or against the citizens of other country - unless the citizens are travelling abroad and even in that specific case the citizens are provided legal support by Embassy officers of their home-country.

Evaluation of the Responses Made by Dretske as Pertains to Chisholms Assignment

Evaluation of the Responses Made by Dretske as Pertains to Chisholms Claims - Assignment Example It was the philosopher Fred Dretske who took to investigating the various claim that was made by the late Roderick Chisholm who postulated that intentional states could only possibly be mental states. In making this claim, Chisholm was seen to derive the claim mainly based on the thesis proposed by Franz Brentano the nineteenth-century philosopher in his book â€Å"Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint†. Chisholm’s Claim that Intentionality cannot be naturalized and Dretske’s Response to the Claim A key feature of various mental states is their actual content. An example is that in the event that I essentially believe it will snow, my actual belief as at the moment can be seen to represent a state of the weather and when I chance to see a dog, I become perpetually aware of that cat. My innate belief that it is eventually going to rain may be seen to be inaccurate or accurate, my perception as to the existence of the cat may be imprecise or precise and my desire to be loved my eventually be satisfied or unsatisfied. Brentano postulated that intentional states were essentially solely mental states and thus distinguished mental states from the physical states because they are objects of awareness and non-spatial in nature. Brentano further contends that this perceived ‘intentional inexistence’ is generally exclusive to psychical phenomena and that there are no physical phenomena that can essentially be said to have it (Feldman & Feldman 2008). The Intentionality of thought can basically be accounted through mental expectations, semantics, and language. All these factors serve to actively demonstrate psychological intention and therefore cannot be explained in non-intentional or non-psychological terms. For Chisholm intentionality cannot essentially be naturalized because it is impossible to identify any such psychological fact with a physical fact. For Chisholm, the use of various intentional sentences essentially means that all our currently existing beliefs about various psychological phenomena an essentially be sufficiently expressed through them although it is impossible to do so for physical phenomena (Feldman & Feldman 2008). A good example of this is the sentence ‘Diogenes searching for an actual honest man†, this sentence can be perceived to be an intentional statement because it is seen not to rely on the relative veracity of there necessarily being an honest man or not.  Ã‚  

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Carl Orff songwriter, composer and publisher Research Paper

Carl Orff songwriter, composer and publisher - Research Paper Example 377). Without having anyone to teach him to write and compose songs, he managed to create his own music based on how he understands music. Using his talent in music, Orff composed a lot of songs for stage puppet shows which over the years has significantly influenced the music education for children. According to Jorgensen (2003, p. 6), the use of patriarchy in teaching music, oppression, violence, and exclusivity is dehumanizing since this type of teaching technique does not acknowledge the importance of freedom, equality, humanity, and inclusiveness necessary to prevent injustice and inhumanity. In line with this, Orff realized that the teaching and learning approach to music was ineffective (Keene, 2009, p. 376). Orff strongly supports the idea that each child should be given the opportunity to â€Å"experience music within their own level of understanding† (Classics for Kids, 2011). Since Orff strongly believe that children needs to experience music, Orff suggested that a more effective way of teaching children music is to make them master the use of musical instruments like piano or violin (Keene, 2009, p. 376). The way music teachers are currently teaching music inside a classroom is strongly influenced by some of the famous historical musicians such as in the case of Carl Orff (Jorgensen, 2003, p. 12; Keene, 2009, p. 376). ... terested in developing and implementing â€Å"a new way of teaching music† (Victorian Orff Schulwek Association, 2011; Orff, Murray, & Keetman, 1976, p. 13). Throughout his career as a musician, Orff spent some time teaching young students how to become creative by expressing how they feel in music (Warner, 1991, p. 3). To enable the students compose unique and more interesting music, Orff explained the need to teach and encourage the students to improvise and be more creative when playing musical instruments (Victorian Orff Schulwek Association, 2011). Using this kind of teaching technique, the students under the guidance of Orff were able to enjoy their freedom to improvise and explore the production of music without the need to stay focus on musical theories and concepts that already exists in the field of music education. As a composer and musician, Orff strongly supports the idea that each child should be given the opportunity to joy composing and creating their own music . In line with this, Orff spent time developing a teaching method which focuses on educating the students with music using alternative methods like group exercises (Maubach, 2006). Believing that the whole body should be involved when playing music, Orff’s movement in educating the students was multifaceted. Therefore, he decided to integrate music not only in singing but also the use of speech, body movements like folk dance, clapping, finger clicking, and stamping, and the use of tuned and percussion non-tuned percussion like tambourines, glockenspiels, recorders, and xylophones in encouraging the students to create their own music (Victorian Orff Schulwek Association, 2011; Keene, 2009, p. 377; Maubach, 2006). As explained by Maubach (2006), Orff strongly believes that each child who spends

Psychology class.Group Pressure And Action Against A Person Milgram Essay

Psychology class.Group Pressure And Action Against A Person Milgram - Essay Example In this study, the research subjects were asked to test learners and administer them shocks with increasing degrees of intensity when the learners provided an incorrect answer. This was to be done in the presence of an authority figure, who asked the tester to continue administering shocks even when the learners began to protest, sometimes intensely. The learners, who were not actually subjected to shocks, and the authority figures were cohorts of the experimenter, while the young men administering the shocks were unaware of the true purpose of the experiment. This experiment was done in multiple forms. When the authority figure and no others were present, the research subjects often administered high levels of shock. When no authority figure was present, the research subjects were significantly less likely to administer high levels of shock. This experiment was also conducted with a group design, meaning that in some cases the research subject was placed in a room with the authority figure and two other â€Å"research subjects† who were actually cohorts of the experimenter.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Carl Orff songwriter, composer and publisher Research Paper

Carl Orff songwriter, composer and publisher - Research Paper Example 377). Without having anyone to teach him to write and compose songs, he managed to create his own music based on how he understands music. Using his talent in music, Orff composed a lot of songs for stage puppet shows which over the years has significantly influenced the music education for children. According to Jorgensen (2003, p. 6), the use of patriarchy in teaching music, oppression, violence, and exclusivity is dehumanizing since this type of teaching technique does not acknowledge the importance of freedom, equality, humanity, and inclusiveness necessary to prevent injustice and inhumanity. In line with this, Orff realized that the teaching and learning approach to music was ineffective (Keene, 2009, p. 376). Orff strongly supports the idea that each child should be given the opportunity to â€Å"experience music within their own level of understanding† (Classics for Kids, 2011). Since Orff strongly believe that children needs to experience music, Orff suggested that a more effective way of teaching children music is to make them master the use of musical instruments like piano or violin (Keene, 2009, p. 376). The way music teachers are currently teaching music inside a classroom is strongly influenced by some of the famous historical musicians such as in the case of Carl Orff (Jorgensen, 2003, p. 12; Keene, 2009, p. 376). ... terested in developing and implementing â€Å"a new way of teaching music† (Victorian Orff Schulwek Association, 2011; Orff, Murray, & Keetman, 1976, p. 13). Throughout his career as a musician, Orff spent some time teaching young students how to become creative by expressing how they feel in music (Warner, 1991, p. 3). To enable the students compose unique and more interesting music, Orff explained the need to teach and encourage the students to improvise and be more creative when playing musical instruments (Victorian Orff Schulwek Association, 2011). Using this kind of teaching technique, the students under the guidance of Orff were able to enjoy their freedom to improvise and explore the production of music without the need to stay focus on musical theories and concepts that already exists in the field of music education. As a composer and musician, Orff strongly supports the idea that each child should be given the opportunity to joy composing and creating their own music . In line with this, Orff spent time developing a teaching method which focuses on educating the students with music using alternative methods like group exercises (Maubach, 2006). Believing that the whole body should be involved when playing music, Orff’s movement in educating the students was multifaceted. Therefore, he decided to integrate music not only in singing but also the use of speech, body movements like folk dance, clapping, finger clicking, and stamping, and the use of tuned and percussion non-tuned percussion like tambourines, glockenspiels, recorders, and xylophones in encouraging the students to create their own music (Victorian Orff Schulwek Association, 2011; Keene, 2009, p. 377; Maubach, 2006). As explained by Maubach (2006), Orff strongly believes that each child who spends

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

How can we avoid having good Internet security technologies Essay

How can we avoid having good Internet security technologies compromised by the people who use them -- Lessons Learned from Pass - Essay Example In this scenario, the data transmitted over the web from confidential e-mail messages to web shopping information, moves all-through a sequence of systems and network connections. Thus, illegal scam artists and hackers avail sufficient chances to cut off or make illegal use of this information intentionally. Moreover, it would be practically not possible to protect each computer system linked to the internet on the earth; consequently there will certainly vulnerable connections in the way of data transmission over the internet (ReferenceForBusiness, 2011). Problems in Internet Security with Technical and Managerial Solutions There are lots of issues which need to be kept in mind when organizations and individuals make use of the internet. While talking about user personal information security the main issues are about hacking and theft of the user’s confidential information that need to be protected competently for the better security management. In this scenario, to deal with this issue password based information security is necessary at all levels of business and personal systems. Seeing that a password for an email or an Automated Teller Machine account or for conducting business over web, offers a security shield to the certified people to make their entrance to these information technology based systems. In this scenario, a password is a group of digits, numbers, symbols and letters to login into an information system. In addition, anniversary dates, birthday dates, social security numbers etc. are some of the common choices people make while choosing a password based security. On the other hand, most of the people favor utilizing automatic tools to produce security passwords. However, the basic concern is how secure these security based passwords are in an attempt to stop illegal access. Moreover, security of a system is frequently compromised when people leave their secret password and printed slip on systems, etc. Thus, the trend to save or note down these secret passwords to a note book or diary, frequently reveals the system to illegal access and consequently takes to unnecessary breach. There are a variety of causes and factors dependable for violation of security because of passwords. In this scenario, a common mistake most of the people make while choosing a secret password is that they select a simple combination. For instance, they develop passwords which are simple to memorize as well as extremely simple to deduce, like that passwords created on confidential data and information. In addition, these secret passwords are a superior threat of being exposed others. Thus, there is need for developing techniques to choose an extremely hard hidden security password (MightyStudent, 2011). Patch management is a circular procedure that should be continuous. On the other hand, the bad truth about software weaknesses is that, if we implement a patch today, a new susceptibility would require tackling next day. In this scenario, the process of building and automating a patch management procedure encompasses utilization of detection tools. These tools are used to check systems for omitted safety patches. In addition, this operation should be automatic in order to activate the patch management

Monday, October 14, 2019

Troubleshooting Evco Insurance Network Essay Example for Free

Troubleshooting Evco Insurance Network Essay The network manager himself not keeping track of the growth of the network , coupled with the return of an unspecified number of computers from storage back into the network, are conditions that would encourage the network congestion currently experienced by Evco Insurance. This is further confirmed by the fact that the worst network congestion occurs where the network has experienced the most expansion in the last six months: the Marketing department. Several causes come to mind, with the presentation of the scenario for Evco Insurance.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The first cause that comes to mind is in regards to the computers pulled out of storage. It is possible that since the computers were pulled out of storage, the configuration of the TCP/IP settings may have conflicted with newer additions to the network. This would affect the computers within the marketing department, since these particular computers were deployed there, and any other computers that share the same settings. This would explain the some of the causes of the network congestion and the solution would be to correct or reconfigure the settings on the affected computers. This is a basic error, however, and would mostly affect only the individual computers that have conflicting settings and would not be the most probable cause, though it may contribute to the congestion.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Related to the first possible cause is the possibility that there are hardware errors that were unchecked when the computers were assigned to the new marketing personnel. A particular concern is the network cards of those computers taken from storage. One such error causes the network card to continuously transmit junk data into the network, flooding the network with unnecessary data and slowing down connectivity; in which case even just one such computer can cause the whole network to slow down. Actual settings of network adapters and switch ports may also have conflicting settings. Both these hardware /settings errors can contribute to the network slowdown in the Marketing department, and both can be located using a combination of actually checking each computer and checking how far along the network a command or ping can travel.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another possibility, but not the last possible cause, is the actual physical cable connections of the Network. A 100BASE-TX can have up to 100 meters of twisted copper cable per segment length, which must be rated at least category 5. While it is possible that the network itself has been poorly maintained, and that individual cables within the physical network are causing the error, it   may be more likely that there are problems or errors in the physical connections recently added to the network, since the problem of slow connectivity was experienced after the addition to the network. Ranging from poorly-maintained cables, using the wrong category of cables, or even the correct type of cable connected or the incorrect crimping of the cable can lead to network slowdown.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Any of these three, or perhaps none of them, could be the cause for the network slowdown experienced in the Marketing department of Evco Insurance. There could be other reasons for the problem, though these are the three possible causes that immediately came to my mind.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Recruitment And Selection Processes

Recruitment And Selection Processes In todays world, recruitment and selection policy plays an important role in the workplace around the globe where it is the key success factors in any business. Recruitment is the process of seeking and attracting a pool of qualified applicants from which candidates for job vacancies can be selected. However, selection is the process that choosing from a group of applicants the best qualified candidates. (Stone 2005, pp.187) Both the recruitment and selection are different management functions, but they can lead the employers to identify the right person for the right job. Thus, it also can help in increase effectiveness of organization. The relationship between employers and employees can seek a big different if compared to past decades. Existing of industrial relations and labor laws has created a protectionism and healthy environment for both parties in the workplace. However, there are still some issues existing in the society nowadays, especially unfair discrimination issue occur in some industries. In fact, those unlawful, unfair treatments or discrimination to the employees may increase the costs and turnover rate in the organization and thus lower the workforces morale. Without recruitment and selection policy, organization may simply hire workers to fit the vacancy spaces even candidates are lack of knowledge, ability, experience, or skill. Besides, numbers of foreign labors is increased from year to year whereby help company to save costs by employed labors in low salary. But, this caused unemployment rate increased and thus uncertainty is possible at the same time by increased in such activities like crime, strike, fighting, and so on. With no expertise workers, there is no doubt that organization will carry out low performance and unsatisfied services or products to the users. The inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the organization might affect its overall performance and reputation indirectly. In order to change the situation and increase the profit, organization may need to make some improvement like give the employees some jobs training and this will increase the costs indirectly. Therefore, it is needed for every organization to ensure that the jobs are suited to offer to workers with abilities by applying recruitment and selection policy to avoid unnecessary expenses. This research study can help everyone to understand the important of recruitment and selection policy toward the organizations in all industries. The information might able to achieve future goals by clearly define the influential of the policy within the organization. Besides that, organizations can also find this information as for their human resource management improvement. Furthermore, the general objective of doing this research study is to identify the recruitment and selection policy can help good relations by ensuring that workers are engaged for jobs suited to their abilities and workers can get satisfaction in their jobs. Secondly, this research study can lead to understand how the policy help organization performs in more effective ways in order to make a right choice. Employer need to choose the most suitable employee to help increase performance of organization. Thirdly, it is important to understand how policy creates a healthy workplace by providing fair treatment to everyone for gaining win-win situation in both employers and employees. That mean organization performance can get improvement and employees can get fully satisfaction in their jobs. Lastly, it is needed to study whether the recruitment and selection policy can make changes in human lifestyle such as better or worse, high educated, skillful, knowledgeable, and so on. 2.0 Literature Review Recruitment and selection are the two important processes under Human Resource department in an organization. Good recruitment and selection policies will ensure a good industrial relation between employees and employers in an organization and also ensured workers are engaged for jobs suited to their abilities. A study made by Hsu Y.R, et al., 2000, found that it is important to have Human Resource managers on the board participating in the development of corporate strategy and that it is important to integrate Human Resource Management policy fully with corporate strategy. However, there are issues pertaining to recruitment and selection policies in industrial relation between employers and employees. In Anastasi, 1988, p-144; Bible, 1990, Cascio, 1987, p. 132; Hutfcut, 1990; Seymour, 1988; Thornton, in press) studies as cited in Smither J.W., et al (n.d) studies, it says that applicant perceived selection procedures as lacking in validity, or otherwise regarded as offensive or intrusive, are more likely to be viewed as unfair, unethical, or immoral issues resulting in more complaints and court challenges. By perceiving unlawful and unfair treatments by employers, workers motivation level to perform well will be lowered down and in turn will increase the costs and turnover rate in the organization. Besides that, Smither J.W. et al, (n.d), also mention that those workers who does not like an organizations policies, practices, or style is likely to go job shopping somewhere else. Changes in workforce demographics may also increase the difficulty to attract and recruit enough qualified workers. The types of benefits can be influence by the demographic factors as well. For example, medical coverage, life insurance, and retirement benefits will be more likely for older workforce. On the other hand, workers under 30 tend to be more interested in flexibility, technology, and training. Therefore, the policies provide for employees should not a one size fits all approach; organizations can provide employees options for customizing a benefits package to match their individual needs (John C.R., 2009).The research made by Hsu Y.R., et al., (2000) on recruitment and selection policies in Taiwan found that the internal recruitment method are commonly used by the responding firm in Taiwan and may not only motivate workers to perform better and increase their commitment towards the organization, but may also improve their job security through upward or lateral career oppor tunities. In Sparrow, P. et al., (1994) study (as cited in Hsu Y.R., et al., (2000) mentioned that by using internal personnel sources effectively, it may also allow management to observe and assess the abilities of employees accurately given the accrued knowledge gathered over the employment relationship. This may avoid management from recruiting and selecting workers that are lack of knowledge, ability and experience to fit into the vacancy spaces besides helping the management to maintain good industrial relations with workers. There is still having some organization discrimination about the union. In the organizational for Economic Co-operation and Development there is declining in union density (Visser,2006; Peetz, 1998). Some of the companies have specific selection criteria to make sure they get staff that are culturally fit with what the companies culture and wish to avoid employees that have strongly unionized, preferring those from non-union (Rae Cooper, et al.,2009). This show that, in the early stage which is selection, organization already tend to choose those not union and those who are unions no chance to get the job. In addition, some companies recruitment policy have stated that they not to employ union members. At the recruitment meeting, human resource consultants and customer service managers have come out a question that whether the workers worked at company that was heavily unionized company can make a good team fit (Rae Cooper, et al., 2009). Joining the non-union organization, workers a re not protected under union and it will relate to more issues like unsatisfied on their working condition, payment, bonus, and others. Furthermore, this will lead to the unfair/unhappiness or workers. So, it cant maintain a good industrial relation between management and workers. There are suggestion that the varied and multilayered de-unionization tactics were not mutually exclusive, as the soft and informal human resources policies only hidden away the more clear and proper plan by employers to break collective representation at the workplace level ( Rae Cooper, et al., 2009). Multinational enterprise (MNE) has facing the problem that in different countries the Human resource procedures are different. Multinational enterprise facing difficulty to transmit their employee relations practices between contrary units operating in different countries. MNEs are important agents in transmitting industrial relations and other employment relations practices across national and cultural borders argued by Sparrow et al, 1994. The improvement in working conditions introduced by the collective agreement since 1989, lower the labor turnover. Organization should not be underestimated the importance of recruiting suitable individuals into an organization (Tony Royle, 1999). Recruit suitable employees into an organization can help increase the performance of organizations and lower down the turnover in the organizations. However, an organization is able to take benefit of employees who share common traits, kicking out those who may question managerial right, have notions of worker solidarity and an interest in trade union representation (Royle, 1998). 3.0 Content analysis Recruitment and selections policy plays vital important role in ensuring that the organization recruiting the qualified workers for job which are commensurate with their abilities. Recruitment and selection is usually central workforce development issues and challenges for the growing and smaller organization nowadays. The employers or human resources should always define the qualifications and experience that needed for the vacant job clearly by ensuring that the applicants skills or abilities that employed are fit with the job. There are always two primary issues that should be concerned by the recruiter or employer which are discrimination that due to the use of informal methods of recruitment and possibility that selection process being skewed by the initial recruitment phrase. Sometimes, discrimination is happen indirectly and unconsciously throughout the procedure. When discrimination occurs, the employer may miss the opportunity of getting the appropriate applicants that suite d with the job. Thus, fair and equity recruitment and selection procedures need to be emphasized to ensure that all applicants have equal employment opportunity so that the company can employ the most suitable applicants for the job that match with their ability. In additional, there are three steps should be taken by the organization which are develop an up to date job description, develop effective recruitment strategy that concern the recruitment sources and recruiter and evaluate the recruitment strategy. Recruitment process and methods also need to check regularly and evaluate now and then. In order to ensure that the candidate engage to the job that suited with their abilities, the employer may explain term and conditions of employment to applicant before they are engaged for the job. By explaining the employment condition to the applicants, they will know more about the job scope and determine whether they are engage for the right job. At the same time, it helps to decrease the tendency of industry relation problems occur at anytime. Besides, selection techniques also plays crucial role in getting right person for the job. The employers must always make sure that the selection is based on suitability for the job and ensure that the recruitment processes are carried out by the competent recruiters that are experience and knowledgeable in human resources field. Once the applicants are proceeding to selection phrase, the individual or panel interview, test, role play activity or reference check will be carried out. Job knowledge test helps to measure the understanding of applicants regard to the job (Compton, 1996). The organizations are encouraged to follow competencies model in recruiting and selecting the applicants as it seeks to identify abilities needed to perform job well rather than focusing on applicant personal characteristics. Moreover, the employers of organization are most likely applying internal recruitment method which is filling the vacancy by transfer or promotions before recruit from outside. These can be supported by the example of recruitment and selection in Australia. In Australia, recruitment from within method is commonly practice by the organization (Nankervis et al., 2002).Filling the job vacancy through transfer or promotions will helps the organization to save up some additional recruiting, selecting and training cost as current employee knows the organization well. Advertising and recruitment agencies are also widely used by organization in Australian as these recruitment methods help to reach large audience of applicants (Gill, 2000). Furthermore, existences of rec ruitment agencies help the organization to match the applicants abilities with the job vacancy. During the selection phrase, the organization in Australia will emphasize on interview, tests and reference check. Interview is important step in selection (Compton, 1996) and common selection tools for many companies ( Huffcult Arthur, 1994). In China, recruitment methods such as advertisement, job fairs, and corporate co-ordination are being practice by organization while for the selection techniques, Interview, tests and behavioral events are exercised by the organization. For example, increasing use of interactive role play during selection phrase helps to ensure that the applicants are engaged for the job that matched with their abilities. Selection phrase is important as it is process of choosing from group of applicants that individual best suited for particular position (Mondy Noe, 1993). Thus, the effectiveness of recruitment will definitely has impact on the efficiency of selection process. Jakob Bjurgert and Johan Karlsson from University of Gothenburg conducted a case study to get insight of hotel industry in Gothenburg, and examine whether internal recruitment could be a key success factor and if it solely could motivate employees. They investigate whether internal recruitment strategy sufficiency to be an incentive compensation system, and find out any difference of view on incentive system in the hotel industry, between the employees and the managements. They found that there are two different types of employees existing, where the first category employees were young and eager climbing the carrier ladder. For them, internal recruitment solely works as an incentive compensation plus motivation to stay in the company. Regarding to the second group, they were those mainly care about a stabile income and job security. Those employees simply less concern about promotion, but would rather appreciate a higher salary. Results from their evaluation also shown discrepancy between the managements and the employees view of the incentive system. An incentive compensation system existed in hotel did not works as motivational factors which from employees viewpoint, it was rather as a guideline to behave well service-minded manner. Merchant and Van d.S. (2007) described an incentive compensation system in terms of monetary and non-monetary rewards. Non-monetary rewards often consist of promotion, personal independence, rising in rank or position, autonomy, and recognition. Incentive compensation system aims to tie rewards to performance valuations. The system informs and reminds workers about what results are important, and motivates them to achieve these results. Incentive compensation systems are important for a firm in order to drive employees put more effort into their job. It is also personnel-related in terms of attracting the right person for the working place. Internal recruitment is one of the most popular incentive systems and become an old tradition in the hotel industry, as one of the non-monetary rewards. It is important for hotel industry in the service sector to have served minded employees. The industry is strongly dependent on their staff because they who are the frontline serve the customers and were important marketing tools. Motivation is needed as a force to push up performance. Through incentive compensation systems the hotel managers can design individual programs to motivate, retain and help attracting employees. (Karthik N.,Li M.,Zhaob X.,2006). However, increase the rewards can be devastating because the employees will then concerning more about the bonuses than to serve best quality to the customer.(Bjurgert J. Karlsson J.,2010) The work in a hotel is characterized by low status or low salaries, having intensive tasks and few chances to get promoted. Thus, motivation is one important tool to affect the behavior of the employees. To achieve motivated employees in the hotel industry, factors such as good salary a safe workplace, possibilities to get promoted and a good working atmosphere need to be fulfilled.(Simon T.Enz C.,1995). Zeithaml, V.A and Bitner, M.J. (2003) stated that before company recruiting a new employee, it is vital to analyze to see whether the potential employee is motivated to work in a service minded way. The hotel industry has a high labor turnover, due to long business hour, and minimum wages offered. New recruitments and learning processes cost time plus money, and company also loose competence and productivity. Nevertheless high turnover help s companies to lower down cost by offering employee the minimum salary when they first enter the company. Thus it is interesting to examine whether it is possible to stimulate and motivate employees solely through internal recruitment. Employees have to be motivated for the right thing, which is connected to the companys goals and visions. Increase workers salary and increase their responsibility and recognition when worker being internally recruited. The management needs to know how to motivate their employees with rewards. It is also important that the employees know how they are judged and how they should effort to reach these rewards. defined internal recruitment as the process of filling vacancies by recruiting staff from inside the company . According to Dessler G. (2010), the advantage of internal recruitment is getting more commitment from current to the company. Morale may also rise if employees see promotions as rewards for loyalty and competence. Moreover, inside candidates require less orientation and training than outsiders. At Gothenburg, internal recruitment in the hotel industry is frequently practiced by large hotel chains, where the supply of workers is large, and most positions are standardized.(Bjurgert J. Karlsson J.,2010). Most of the job advertisements go through via internal and external portal, where both internal and external applicants have a chance to getting the job. Even though they also advertise externally, most positions are filled with internal candidates. This could be explained by the size of the company, and high supply of candidates. 4.0 Conclusion In this study we can conclude that a good recruitment and selection policies will ensure a good industrial relation between employees and employers in an organization and can also help to identify that job can suit with the skills and abilities of employee. A good recruitment and selection process can give employer and employee achieve win-win situation. Recruitment and selection processes are main factor can help organization get successful in their business. In order placing a right people in right job is very important. This is because when worker enjoy satisfaction with their job, while can improve performance of worker. Thus, it also will help to improve overall performance of organization. In the recruitment and selection process, employer needs to pay more attention and aware on the skills, abilities, knowledge, and experience of candidates. Employer should be aware those requirement of candidates, so that can fully apply in the organization and integrate in the organization culture. Besides, those skills can effectively help in improve performance and profitability of organization. In additional, employee can also get fully satisfaction in their job because their skills can fully apply in job. In my opinion in the view point of employer, before start recruitment and selection process, employer must have clear idea about what kind of employee they want to seek and what kind of experience a potential employee to have had. It can help employer to raise success rate in the selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Thus, employer also need to make sure what organization can offer will fix what job applicants desire such as salary, work hours, working conditions, working environment and so on. It can help in reduce the probability employee which recruited and will leave in the short period. Employer can provide recruitment agency or recruitment consultant to carry out company recruitment and selection process. Employer just needs to simple describe out what kind of employee they desire to get. After that, recruitment agency will help employer to make interview with all job applicants and then help them to find out the most suitable person. Next, in the view point of employee, before interview candidates should be ready to provide feedback of any kind of questions and prepare to answer different kind of questions during that interview. Before the interview, candidates need very clearly know about what kind of job they interested in. Furthermore, candidates can try to identify what kind of question may ask by employer and they need to how answer question to show their skills and abilities to get the job.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Societal Views on Interracialism Throughout American History Essay

"-- we are all complicit and we all carry a certain responsibility for America's original sin: racism." -- David Bedrick, The Huffington Post, 10 April 2015 "Half-breed†, â€Å"Mulatto†, â€Å"Octoroon.† All of these terms at one point served to describe individuals of mixed race, particularly African and Caucasian. The controversy of interracialism has transcended generations, as well as cultures. It is a subject that, historically, has held the potential to incite savage racial discrimination, loathing, and violence. Indeed, even in today’s significantly more enlightened and politically correct views on race, interracial relationships and individuals still possess the potential to make many uncomfortable. Two historical periods in which racial topics, including interracialism, were the source of much social unrest are the eras of the pre-Civil War and the Harlem Renaissance. During these times voices were raised in protest from all sides of racial debates. These voices were in the forms of organized protests, speeches, writings in books and periodicals, as well as violent acts of rioting, burning, and lynching. In addition to these, a very important medium through which beliefs on racial topics were expressed was art. It has been said by many scholars that the arts of a society can serve as a social barometer. Popular, influential, and controversial theatrical pieces offer a window through which one can observe aspects of a culture, including values, virtues, and ideas on a particular subject. Hence, in looking at and comparing the eras of the pre-Civil War and the Harlem Renaissance, in regard to the ideas held on mixed race relationships and individuals, one needs to consider theatrical pieces of the ... ...iev, Noel. "Race in pre-Civil War America." Social Education. 62:6 (1998): 340- 344. Kennedy, Randall. "Interracial Intimacies: Sex, Marriage, Identity, and Adoption." Library Journal. 128:2 (2003): 105. McMillen, Neil R. Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. Urbana, Illinois, and Chicago: U of Illinois P. Moran, Rachel F. "Interracial Intimacy: The Regulation of Race and Romance." History Today. 52:11 (2002): 75. Plum, Jay. "Accounting for the Audience in Historical Reconstruction: Martin Jones’s Production of Langston Hughes’s Mulatto." Theatre Survey. v 36 (1995) 5-19. Smalley, Webster. Five Plays by Langston Hughes. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968. Thomson, Peter. Plays by Dion Boucicault. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Ward, John. "Theatrical." New York Times. 6 December 1859, 22.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Islam world Essay

European countries colonized most of the Islam world in eighteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. They were able to manage the finances and economies of these countries which only catered on their own interests and in their own ways. Banks all over the world have their own system in operating their organization. They set policies to attain their specific objectives and goals. One of these is the Islamic banking. Islamic banking as defined in Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia refers to a system of banking or banking activity which is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. In Islamic law, it forbids usury, the collection and payment of interest which is usually called as riba in Islamic discourse. In general, the Islamic law forbids trading in financial risk which is seen as a form of gambling. It also forbids investing in businesses that are considered haram such as businesses which involve in alcohol or pork, or businesses which produce un-Islamic media. Numerous of Islamic banking was founded in the late 20th century to cater to this specific banking market. History of Islamic Banking During the time of Prophet Muhammad, the Muslim communities have limited banking activity such as acceptance of deposits. In those days, the Muslims deposited their money with the Prophet or with the First Khalif of Islam whose name is Abu Bakr Sedique. The first Islamic bank was founded in Egypt which was put into under cover without giving any hint of Islamic image for having the fear of being seen as a manifestation of Islamic fundamentalism. In 1963, there was a pioneering effort made by Ahmed El Najjar who took the form of savings bank based on profit-sharing in Egyptian town of Mit Ghamr as an experiment. But the experimentation was ended in 1967 because during those days, there were nine banks in the country which had the same system as his. Principles in Islamic Banking Just like other banking systems, Islamic banking follows same purpose except that it operates in accordance with the rules of Shariah which is known as Figh al-Muamalat (Islamic rules on transactions). The sharing of profit and loss and the prohibition of riba’ which means interest is the basic principle in Islamic banking. There are common Islamic concepts which are used by the Islamic banking and these are the Mudharabah ( profit sharing) , Wadiah (safekeeping), Musharakah (joint venture), Murabahah ( cost plus) and Ijarah (leasing). Islamic banking uses many approaches in operating the system, if someone would like to loan the buyer money for him to purchase the selected item he chooses, the bank might be the one to buy that item to the seller and re-sell it to him at a profit by allowing him to pay the bank in installments but before his loan will be approved, the bank would ask him to have his strict collateral for bank’s protection against default. The land or goods which are registered in his name from the start of the transaction are the possible collateral. However, if he has late payment, there will be no additional penalties. This kind of arrangement is known as Murabaha. Ijara wa Iqtina is another approach use by Islamic banking. It is just similar to real estate leasing. All Islamic banks have the same approaches when it comes to vehicle loans. They sell the vehicle at a higher rate than in the market price to the debtor and have his/her ownership of the vehicle until the loan is paid. Islamic banks also used several approaches in business deals. They lend money to the some companies by issuing floating rate interest loans. This floating rate of interest is pegged to the company’s individual rate of return. In other words, the bank’s profit on the loan has equal ratio to a certain percentage of the company’s profit. There will be profit-sharing arrangement if the principal amount of the loan is repaid. This kind of approach is called Musharaka. Another approach is the Mudaraba. It is a venture capital funding which the bank provides financing while a certain entrepreneur provides labor so that both risk and profit are commonly shared. This kind of arrangement reflects the Islamic view that the borrower must not only be the one to bear all the risk or cost of a failure. Islamic banking only finance the Islamic acceptable deals and it doesn’t involve in alcohol, pork, gambling and other form of businesses that are against in their beliefs. The only acceptable form of investment is the ethical investing and moral purchasing is encouraged. Recently, there are numerous Islamic banks opened in the Muslim world but they still have a very small share of the global banking system. Concepts in Islamic debt banking *Wadiah (Safekeeping) The bank is entrusted as a keeper and trustee of funds. An individual deposits fund in the bank and the bank will guarantee and assure refund of the entire amount of the deposit, or any amount of outstanding balance whenever the depositor demands or withdraws it. The depositor may be rewarded with ‘hibah’ also called as gift as a way of showing gratitude for the use of funds by the bank. The bank compensates depositors for the time-value of their money; an example of this is the interest but refers it as a â€Å"gift†. *Mudharabah (Profit Loss sharing) It is an agreement or arrangement between an entrepreneur and a capital provider which the entrepreneur can use funds for his/her business activity. The capital provider and the entrepreneur will share the profits according to an agreed ratio but if ever there are losses, only the capital provider will bear them. The profit-sharing continues until the loan is repaid. The bank will be compensated for the time value of its money through the form of floating interest rate which is pegged to the debtor’s profits. * Musharakah (Joint Venture) This kind of approach is usually applied for joint ventures and business partnerships. They share same profits according to their agreed ratio and divide incurred losses based on the equity participation ratio. This concept is different from fixed-income investing. *Murabahah (Cost Plus) This concept is referring to the sale of goods at a price, which include a profit margin agreed to by both parties. At the time of sale agreement, the purchase and selling price, the profit margin and other costs must be clearly stated. The bank will be compensated for the time value of its money in the form of the profit money. It is a fixed-income loan for the purchase of a real asset such as real estate or a vehicle having a fixed rate of interest. The bank cannot have an additional interest on late payments. The asset remains in the ownership of the bank unless it is fully paid. This kind of concept is also similar to â€Å"rent-to-own† arrangements for furniture or appliances that are very common in North American stores. * Bai’ Bithaman Ajil (Deferred Payment Sale) This concept is almost the same with Murabahah but the debtor in this concept makes only a single installment and will pay on the maturity date of the loan. It also refers to the sale of goods on a deferred payment basis at a price including the profit margin agreed to by both parties. *Wakalah (Agency) The concept happens when an individual appoints a representative to do the transactions on his/her behalf which is just similar to a power of attorney. *Qardhul Hassan (Benevolent Loan) Of all form of loans mentioned, only Qardhul Hassan has an excellent effect to the debtors because in this loan, the debtor is only required to repay the principal amount lent. However, the debtor may pay an extra amount (any amount that is in his heart) beyond the principal amount of the loan as a way of gratitude to the creditor. But this transaction is a true interest-free loan because there are debtors who do not give an extra amount to the creditor. For some Muslims, they consider this loan as the only type of loan that does not go against with the prohibition on riba which is a type of a loan that does not compensate the creditor for the value of money. *Ijarah Thumma Al Bai’ (Hire Purchase) In this concept of loan, there are two contracts involved. Ijarah contract is into leasing/renting and the other contract is called Bai’ contact which means to purchase. These two contracts are undertaken one after the other. An example of this is in a car financing facility. A customer enters in an Ijarah contract where he/she leases the car from the owner which is the bank at an agreed amount over a particular period of time. When his contract in Ijarah expires, the Bai’ contract comes into effect which enables the customer to purchase and own the car at an agreed price. With this, the bank sells the car to the customer at an above market-price profit in return for agreeing to receive the payment over a period of time. The profit margin is equal to the interest earned at fixed rate of return. * Bai’ al-Inah (Sell and Buy back Agreement) In Bai’ al-Inah, the financier sells product to the customer on a long-term payment basis and then the financier immediately repurchased the product for cash with a discount. This agreement permits the bank to assume the ownership over the product or asset in order to protect default without charging interest in late payments or insolvency. *Hibah (Gift) The debtor in this concept voluntarily gives a hibah (gift) as a token given to the creditor in return for a loan. This concept is practice when Islamic banks voluntarily pay their customers interest on their savings account balances. * Takaful (Islamic Insurance) This concept is not new for it had been practiced by the Muhajrin of Mecca and the Ansar of Medina following the hijra of the Prophet over 1400 years ago. Takaful is also an alternative form of cover which a Muslim can avail himself the risk of loss due to misfortunes. Nowadays, in the modern business world, one way to minimize the risk of loss due to unavoidable circumstances is through insurances. The idea behind insurance is the sharing of risk. This concept of insurance does not go against in Shariah concept where resources are accumulated to help those who are in need.