Friday, October 11, 2019
Islam world Essay
European countries colonized most of the Islam world in eighteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. They were able to manage the finances and economies of these countries which only catered on their own interests and in their own ways. Banks all over the world have their own system in operating their organization. They set policies to attain their specific objectives and goals. One of these is the Islamic banking. Islamic banking as defined in Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia refers to a system of banking or banking activity which is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. In Islamic law, it forbids usury, the collection and payment of interest which is usually called as riba in Islamic discourse. In general, the Islamic law forbids trading in financial risk which is seen as a form of gambling. It also forbids investing in businesses that are considered haram such as businesses which involve in alcohol or pork, or businesses which produce un-Islamic media. Numerous of Islamic banking was founded in the late 20th century to cater to this specific banking market. History of Islamic Banking During the time of Prophet Muhammad, the Muslim communities have limited banking activity such as acceptance of deposits. In those days, the Muslims deposited their money with the Prophet or with the First Khalif of Islam whose name is Abu Bakr Sedique. The first Islamic bank was founded in Egypt which was put into under cover without giving any hint of Islamic image for having the fear of being seen as a manifestation of Islamic fundamentalism. In 1963, there was a pioneering effort made by Ahmed El Najjar who took the form of savings bank based on profit-sharing in Egyptian town of Mit Ghamr as an experiment. But the experimentation was ended in 1967 because during those days, there were nine banks in the country which had the same system as his. Principles in Islamic Banking Just like other banking systems, Islamic banking follows same purpose except that it operates in accordance with the rules of Shariah which is known as Figh al-Muamalat (Islamic rules on transactions). The sharing of profit and loss and the prohibition of ribaÃ¢â¬â¢ which means interest is the basic principle in Islamic banking. There are common Islamic concepts which are used by the Islamic banking and these are the Mudharabah ( profit sharing) , Wadiah (safekeeping), Musharakah (joint venture), Murabahah ( cost plus) and Ijarah (leasing). Islamic banking uses many approaches in operating the system, if someone would like to loan the buyer money for him to purchase the selected item he chooses, the bank might be the one to buy that item to the seller and re-sell it to him at a profit by allowing him to pay the bank in installments but before his loan will be approved, the bank would ask him to have his strict collateral for bankÃ¢â¬â¢s protection against default. The land or goods which are registered in his name from the start of the transaction are the possible collateral. However, if he has late payment, there will be no additional penalties. This kind of arrangement is known as Murabaha. Ijara wa Iqtina is another approach use by Islamic banking. It is just similar to real estate leasing. All Islamic banks have the same approaches when it comes to vehicle loans. They sell the vehicle at a higher rate than in the market price to the debtor and have his/her ownership of the vehicle until the loan is paid. Islamic banks also used several approaches in business deals. They lend money to the some companies by issuing floating rate interest loans. This floating rate of interest is pegged to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s individual rate of return. In other words, the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s profit on the loan has equal ratio to a certain percentage of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profit. There will be profit-sharing arrangement if the principal amount of the loan is repaid. This kind of approach is called Musharaka. Another approach is the Mudaraba. It is a venture capital funding which the bank provides financing while a certain entrepreneur provides labor so that both risk and profit are commonly shared. This kind of arrangement reflects the Islamic view that the borrower must not only be the one to bear all the risk or cost of a failure. Islamic banking only finance the Islamic acceptable deals and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t involve in alcohol, pork, gambling and other form of businesses that are against in their beliefs. The only acceptable form of investment is the ethical investing and moral purchasing is encouraged. Recently, there are numerous Islamic banks opened in the Muslim world but they still have a very small share of the global banking system. Concepts in Islamic debt banking *Wadiah (Safekeeping) The bank is entrusted as a keeper and trustee of funds. An individual deposits fund in the bank and the bank will guarantee and assure refund of the entire amount of the deposit, or any amount of outstanding balance whenever the depositor demands or withdraws it. The depositor may be rewarded with Ã¢â¬ËhibahÃ¢â¬â¢ also called as gift as a way of showing gratitude for the use of funds by the bank. The bank compensates depositors for the time-value of their money; an example of this is the interest but refers it as a Ã¢â¬Å"giftÃ¢â¬ . *Mudharabah (Profit Loss sharing) It is an agreement or arrangement between an entrepreneur and a capital provider which the entrepreneur can use funds for his/her business activity. The capital provider and the entrepreneur will share the profits according to an agreed ratio but if ever there are losses, only the capital provider will bear them. The profit-sharing continues until the loan is repaid. The bank will be compensated for the time value of its money through the form of floating interest rate which is pegged to the debtorÃ¢â¬â¢s profits. * Musharakah (Joint Venture) This kind of approach is usually applied for joint ventures and business partnerships. They share same profits according to their agreed ratio and divide incurred losses based on the equity participation ratio. This concept is different from fixed-income investing. *Murabahah (Cost Plus) This concept is referring to the sale of goods at a price, which include a profit margin agreed to by both parties. At the time of sale agreement, the purchase and selling price, the profit margin and other costs must be clearly stated. The bank will be compensated for the time value of its money in the form of the profit money. It is a fixed-income loan for the purchase of a real asset such as real estate or a vehicle having a fixed rate of interest. The bank cannot have an additional interest on late payments. The asset remains in the ownership of the bank unless it is fully paid. This kind of concept is also similar to Ã¢â¬Å"rent-to-ownÃ¢â¬ arrangements for furniture or appliances that are very common in North American stores. * BaiÃ¢â¬â¢ Bithaman Ajil (Deferred Payment Sale) This concept is almost the same with Murabahah but the debtor in this concept makes only a single installment and will pay on the maturity date of the loan. It also refers to the sale of goods on a deferred payment basis at a price including the profit margin agreed to by both parties. *Wakalah (Agency) The concept happens when an individual appoints a representative to do the transactions on his/her behalf which is just similar to a power of attorney. *Qardhul Hassan (Benevolent Loan) Of all form of loans mentioned, only Qardhul Hassan has an excellent effect to the debtors because in this loan, the debtor is only required to repay the principal amount lent. However, the debtor may pay an extra amount (any amount that is in his heart) beyond the principal amount of the loan as a way of gratitude to the creditor. But this transaction is a true interest-free loan because there are debtors who do not give an extra amount to the creditor. For some Muslims, they consider this loan as the only type of loan that does not go against with the prohibition on riba which is a type of a loan that does not compensate the creditor for the value of money. *Ijarah Thumma Al BaiÃ¢â¬â¢ (Hire Purchase) In this concept of loan, there are two contracts involved. Ijarah contract is into leasing/renting and the other contract is called BaiÃ¢â¬â¢ contact which means to purchase. These two contracts are undertaken one after the other. An example of this is in a car financing facility. A customer enters in an Ijarah contract where he/she leases the car from the owner which is the bank at an agreed amount over a particular period of time. When his contract in Ijarah expires, the BaiÃ¢â¬â¢ contract comes into effect which enables the customer to purchase and own the car at an agreed price. With this, the bank sells the car to the customer at an above market-price profit in return for agreeing to receive the payment over a period of time. The profit margin is equal to the interest earned at fixed rate of return. * BaiÃ¢â¬â¢ al-Inah (Sell and Buy back Agreement) In BaiÃ¢â¬â¢ al-Inah, the financier sells product to the customer on a long-term payment basis and then the financier immediately repurchased the product for cash with a discount. This agreement permits the bank to assume the ownership over the product or asset in order to protect default without charging interest in late payments or insolvency. *Hibah (Gift) The debtor in this concept voluntarily gives a hibah (gift) as a token given to the creditor in return for a loan. This concept is practice when Islamic banks voluntarily pay their customers interest on their savings account balances. * Takaful (Islamic Insurance) This concept is not new for it had been practiced by the Muhajrin of Mecca and the Ansar of Medina following the hijra of the Prophet over 1400 years ago. Takaful is also an alternative form of cover which a Muslim can avail himself the risk of loss due to misfortunes. Nowadays, in the modern business world, one way to minimize the risk of loss due to unavoidable circumstances is through insurances. The idea behind insurance is the sharing of risk. This concept of insurance does not go against in Shariah concept where resources are accumulated to help those who are in need.