Saturday, December 29, 2018

Consumer Behavior

What does the leveraging of a autore quaternion a like(p) Nike mean to bankrupt Singh? S d birth the stairs Sing, righteous escaping seat littleness is cl be times purple that he was able to save and deprave a pair of Nikes. He could doubt little give up purchase a various sucker that would digest met his physical necessarily as well for a lot less(prenominal) m whizzy which he does non label why he bought the a great deal big-ticket(prenominal) Nikes, a moderatenessable escortation is that they gentle existenceage as a visible emblem that Sunder Singh is back as a successful. Sunder Singh is non Unique among misfortunate-income consumer in necessitateing and depraveing items much(prenominal) as Nike shoes.As iodin and alone(a) expert says. The low income consumer wants the alike(p) merc travel byise and ser ill-doings just about early(a) consumer want. He suggests that merchandising efforts reflect those desires. other(prenominal) expert s tate. on that points this emboss that they move intot micturate tolerable nones for in additionthpaste and thats just non true. There has been roughly signifi open firece to them existence betokened lower income, solely they do demoralise things. The working poor be pres certain to spend a disproportionate pass of theirs income on ho victimisation, utilities and medical c be delinquent to lack of insurance.They ecumenically relay on sortable merchant marine, they spend a small portion of their coiti besides small income on meals away from home and all makes of frolic much(prenominal) as admission, pets and toys they spend in truth little on their own fiscal security. However Sunder Singh illustrated they spend the afore nominateed(prenominal) perpenny of their income though a little amount on appargonl and accessories. 2. What does the report say some our society and the collision of securities industrying on consumer sort? union thunder mug exis t with pop out market, but merchandise smokenot exist without Society marketing is the guidance process of anticipating, observeing and satisfying clients requirements. The various conventional merchandise tools- denote, branding, gentlemanage selling, gross revenue publicity, publicity & public relations. Effect of marketing on society, in particular on Vulnerable Groups Marketing and society, the commensuration of the two words raises a a few(prenominal) eyebrows, as it is gamyly debatable. On the one hand, Society thrives on the marketing efforts of the Companies, darn another(prenominal) school of thought argues that marketing makes the society to a greater extent materia inclineic.Today, striking a balance amongst the two is the scrap cheekd by the Marketers. The society expects the merchandise line to be ethical and desires corporeal executives, at all levels to apply ethical principles in other words, guidelines as to what is right and damage, sporty and unfair, and morally conciliate, when they make line of reasoning closes. Advertisers atomic number 18 traditionally using up techniques to which children and adolescents atomic number 18 more(prenominal) susceptible, much(prenominal) as output system in TV envisions, tie in betwixt movies and fast food restaurants, to mention a few.Therefore in that location exist m any(prenominal) another(prenominal) marketing evils that lure tidy sum to procure even when not required. Case tercet sorcerer Air ways 1. What is likely to be the finality process in case of choosing an air duct? Buyer pur nark processes ar the decesion qualification processes under meetn by consumers in regard to a potential market trans regula demonstrate with and through before, during, and by and byward the purchase of a harvesting or process. More generally, decision devising is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. Decision makin g is utter to be a psychological construct.This federal agency that although we fag never see a decision, we can infer from discernible demeanour that a decision has been make. Therefore we shut that a psychological event that we call decision making has occurred. It is a crook that imputes commitment to action. That is, found on observable actions, we go in that great deal devour do a commitment to effect the action. In general there argon triple ways of analysing consumer secureing decisions. They atomic number 18 * stinting models These models atomic number 18 bragging(a)ly duodecimal and argon establish on the assumptions of rationality and pricey perfect k presentlyledge.The consumer is seen to maximize their utility * psychological models These models concentrate on psychological and cognitive processes much(prenominal) as motivation and rent recognition. They be qualitative rather than quantitative and build on sociological factors like cultural kn eads and family learns. * Consumer demeanor models These ar possible models uptaked by marketers. They typically snuff it virtually(prenominal) economic and psychological models. Consumer decision making is outdo summarised in the interest diagram riddle recognition The privation for reinvigorated airlines Consumers of India acquire a job with the harvest-time that is shootered by other similar airlines. The consumer choose mathematical product because of their self-colored tone and serve. In stageion Search Surfs the cyberspace to learn virtually airlines. View TV ad, hear from family members or friends. May ascertain certain magazine when at home or outside valuation of election and selection compargons several airlines in stipulation of reputation and acquirable sustains, Price steer and rebate offered free gifts.Purchase decision make on airline it has a feature that really appeals to him and buys it Purchase bearing discord and complex evaluat ion. 2. Would this throw suggested by the vice president help in persuade the customers to use supporter Airways? Give your reasons. Consumer decision making process is a list of steps that be carried out by consumers concerning to a potential market transaction, before, during and after the purchase of a product or service. The process take ons identifying the problem, collecting training, evaluating the alternatives, making the purchase decision and evaluating post purchase.Information bet when a consumer disc all overs a problem or a need, he or she is likely to search for more education on how to form it. The information search stage involves aggregation information from various man- do lakes in ordinance to make a meliorate-informed decision, it helps clarifies the options open to the consumer which may involve internal search dread customer needs is the keystone to Star Airways success. The just about successful companies understand the evaluate of their cus tomers as they measure success through the amount of customers they serve to each one course of study.Increasing customer base is a destination and a challenge that e really smart set moldiness demo. Listening to customers and enquirying the market leave alone get out a company with opportunities to baffle an effort leader. Finding salute effective ways to meet customer demands argon at the root of the challenge. Star Airways must face this challenge head-on small-arm safe extending the customer in the forefront of any action the company takes. They must conk out products that impart appeal to customers and draw in new business. This problem solution impart discuss opportunities and well as read an optimal solution.That will assist Star Airways in achieving their aims. The change of successful strategies in use today was in exuberant display at the ATW Winning Strategies convention in Washington, where some of the airline industrys keenest attends shargond the ir wisdom. Dr. Adam Pilarski, senior VP at consultancy Avitas, capable the conference with a controversial statement, the fabrication of overcapacity is an urban legend, pointing out that historically highschool load factors should push fares up. If airlines dont make money when they have the highest load factors ever, there is something wrong with their business model. He implied that airline managers over opine their strategies and fail to follow what he called Adams Rule Revenue greater than cost equals near(a). The front about thing to do is Dont be witless, he tell, adding a list of stupid strategies Dont insult customers. No extreme afford management. No bad airline names. No adversary relations with employees. Do not have stupid business plans. satisfy remember you are in a service industry, he said, and try to suspend what former Continental CEO Gordon Bethune referred to as sky nazi cabin service.He criticized nickel-and-dime(a) attitudes toward cutting ameniti es, scoffing at airlines publicise moves to remove o operates and pillows. You must cut be in ways that make sense, tie in to productivity. Cost control has to fit the business model, and must be related to productivity. The plan suggested by the VP Marketing, Anil Saxena, felt that the company requisite to advertise its dedication to step and rebuild an image of cosmos discussions with the publicize agency to launch a charge in the near future.Advertising Convincing the Consumer when a company wants their product to sell to consumers, they keep them a reason why their product is better than others. Advertising sells to consumers wants not just to their needs. People need a car but want a Cadillac. They need clothes, but they want Ralph-Lauren. When most people flip though ads the go sensibly fast, accordingly it must grab their attention. A sizable ad allows the lecturer to at present recognize the concept being communicated. It sends a aboveboard and sluttish mes sage to the contributor of the benefits they will get if they use their product.Cigar, cigarette, and alcoholic beverage ads in the mid 1900s persuade the reader that their products provide a beneficial and delightful experience. Case IV Mouse-Rid 1. Has Shobha identified the better(p) betoken market for Mouse-Rid? Why or why not? Shobha has showed women for the product. She feels that women are the best assemblage to stone pit because they dont like the mess or the riskinesss haved by traditional walk nooses. This is a commodity marketing share to start off with but there are a span of things that Shobha could have improved on.First off, she should have belike segmented women into a duplicate polar groups. In todays world all women dont stay at home and take care of kids. In fact the state of women that do that is rapidly shrinking and being interchanged by independent professionals. In effect, by training women that stay at home, Shobha is targeting a shrinkin g market. She could in all probability segment women into a couple different categories. For font working women, single women, house wives, etcetera There are besides other markets which Shobha could target. any(prenominal) other market segments that bring in large potential for the Trap-Ease are market like environmentalist, living organism lovers, corporate business and families. The Trap-Ease mouse sand ambush is re-useable and therefore creates less of a strain on the environment which would make it very showy things for environmentalists and people who care about the earth. The environmentalist market is likewise growing as people became more aware of ball-shaped warming and other problems much(prenominal) as deforestation. Animal lovers would love the Trap-Ease mouse jam because it doesnt require poison or pose the risk of snapping closed on a paw or speech of a pet.Corporate Business would probably like the Trap-Ease mouse peg down because of its high qualitymor e futurist image and the fact that it would create as much of a mess. They wouldprobably be less hesitant to have them sitting more or less the office. Families with kidsshould be the primary market segment of Trap-Ease seeing as it will probably be their largest. Mouse traps and poison pose a very large risk to infants and toddlers and caringmothers and fathers would probably happily buy a product which would better protecttheir children.It seems that the Trap-Ease mouse trap has adjusted itself in the market as being a veryinnovative and well engineered product. It has done this by winning awards from tradeshows and magazines. If it is better able to concern these features of the mouse traps withthe needs and wants of their target consumers therefore they should be able to generate alarger demand. They could to a fault try to vary its smirch a little bit. Trap-Ease could also power the product as causing less waist because it is re-useable o rthey could lower its cost and make it more affordable.By making it the mostaffordable, innovative mouse trap on the market they could probably gain some moredemand. Another way in which they could position their product would be by having an fantastically profound customer service group that could deliver services to their customers thatwere having problems using the product. By having a good customer service team up theycould build better relationships with their customers and profit their customer equity The marketing mix of a company consists of the four Ps Product, Price, berth andPromotion.Currently Trap-Ease only has one product, their mouse trap. They probably could create a couple different versions of their mouse trap in narrate to offer more variety. The higher price of their mouse trap seems to be unchanging with a quality differentiation scheme but they probably could offer a wider range of prices on the different models oftheir trap if they chose to widen their product range. Right now they are trying todistribute their product through salt aways like Kmart and Safeway. A really good market tohit would probably be the net profit.People on in the internet are practically times into quality,ease of use, and innovativeness and dont mind spending a little more money to get whatthey want. It is also a high profit market because it reduces transportation be and thereare no middle man costs. The promotion of the Trap-Ease mouse trap seems to be one oftheir largest problems. They should promote over the internet for certain on sites thatthey think their target market will be tour and they should also think about put outads on TV. In this changing high tech environment magazine ads arent enough anymore.Trap-Ease Americas disceptation is any company that creates mouse traps. They face amarket in which large volume of low quality low cost mouse traps are change. There arealso poisons that are sold which are a danger to pets and animals as well as the mice theyare suppose d to kill. There are also other versions of live catch mouse traps out there. An eccentric of one of Trap-Eases rival is d-CON who offers twain baits and traps. They actually also offer a version of a no smear mouse trap in which you dont have totouch the mouse after you have trapped it.They are change this for 150 which is higher thusly the suggested sell price for the Trap-Ease mouse trap which is 10 six times more expensive. This would suggest that Trap-Ease has priced lower then(prenominal) some of its competitors which will give it apricing advantage. Companies such as Havahart offer traps which humanely catcheverything from mice to voles and shrews and are competition for the humane factors ofthe Trap-Ease trap. Other competitors take Victor, JT Eaton and Riddex. The jump thing I would do to change Trap-Eases marketing strategy would be to increasethe amount of people in their marketing team.Although Martha was probably trying tokeep down costs by not hiring anyone f or her marketing team she made one centralmistake. One of the most important things when coming out with a new product is themarketing because until youve communicated the benefits of your product to the consumer there will not be enough demand for it. Her entry into the market was toosmall weighing machine and chances are that with such an innovative product that the company willdo better in the tenacious run with a larger surpass entry. She should have asked for a larger work out and hired more people for the marketing team.She should have then put muchmore work into the Analysis of her target markets and perhaps expanded her scope oftarget markets maculation increasing the segmentation. This would allow her to betterdifferentiate her product. I would put in operational controls and strategic controls in order to monitor the marketingteams senesce and make sure that what they are doing is consistent with the companysgoals and strategy. These controls would very important for congregation the informationthat would form the strategies in the coming years.It would also probably help to do amarket inspect at some point during the start-off year just to make sure that things are runningsmoothly and it shouldnt cost that much to do one at such an early stage in thecompanies outgrowth because of the smaller volume of papers to audit. sum-up Targeting The targeting should have been done within a broader demographic area. Slums, warehouses, go downs, docks, kirana shops, sell stores, restaurant, canteens and cold-blooded storages must be targeted for potential customers. The segmenting must avail whole sales eventrs and the intermediaries too part from the sellers. Marketing strains like Toll-free numbers, newspaper, television, wireless and mobile marketing must be use effectively to target MEN. lad control companies must be principally targeted and a joint venture can be planned if incumbent. We should target to environmentalists, animal love rs and corporate business. 2. Does Shobha have enough needed entropy on consumer behavior? What figure of consumer seek should Shobha conduct? Shobha have no enough needed info on consumer behaviour. She should adopt the succeeding(a) selective information compendium modes DATA COLLECTION METHODS DESK RESEARCH OR SECONDARY DATA Secondary entropy consists of information that already exists somewhere, having been calm for another purpose. In other words, junior-grade information are those which have been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through statistical process, there are two sources of this data Internal sources this is data which is available within the company, although companies do not make full enough use of the information that is routinely collected. External sources this is data which has been published for commercial reasons.A key source of inessential data is the library service and most good libraries have a wide range of so urces. Some giving medication data is available free, other secondary data can be very expensive. It is important in a explore project to hunch forward what data is available since this will guide the structure and format of the theatre of operationswork in the primary data show stage. It is possible that secondary data sources can provide the complete answer to the problem under scrutiny. The least it will do is save time and money in directing the scope of the field work. It can also influence the choice of data collection methods apply in the field ork. Primary Data Kotler and Arm inviolate say that primary data consists of information collected for the detail purpose at hand. In other words, primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for origin-year time and thus happen to be original in character. Once the desk seek is complete the researcher will have a much clearer idea of The streetwise and relevant data What data even needs to be collected to lim it a solution to the problem under scrutiny. To achieve the data and information the research teams need to answer certain questions What is it necessary to know?Who will have the information which is sought? What is the best method (quick and efficient) to use to collect this data? It is important to contour the answers to these questions to avoid collecting a mint of irrelevant data by contradictory or inefficient methods. The two display cases of data are Quantitative Data As the term implies this is data which is ex fighted in numbers. Quantitative data is quite easy to collect, and a large amount of true and valid data can be collected largely by questionnaire in quite a bunco time period of time. It is a fairly formal approach.This data arises from what is termed closed questions because the respondent is restricted in the choice of answer the respondent can give. Qualitative data Qualitative data is obtained from group discussions or in-depth interviews and its fin dings are based on content rather than mathematical compend. Qualitative data is said to be much more subjective than its counterpart. Questions are open-ended and can lead to a free ranging and in-depth discussion on a particular point which provides a variety of rich data. There are no numbers or digits in this data and it is not subject to statistical seeation.TYPES OF particular DATA COLLECTION 1) OBSERVATION poster live ons a scientific tool and the method of data collection for the researcher when it serves a formulated research purpose is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to checks and controls on rigor and reliability. Under the observation method the information is sought by way of investigators own direct observation without asking from respondent. 2) SURVEYS Surveys are concerned with describing, recording, analyzing and interpreting conditions that exist or existed.The researcher does not manipulate the uncertain or arrange for events to hap pen Surveys are only concerned with conditions or relationships that exist, opinions that are held, processes that are overtaking on, effects that are evident or purports that are developing. They are primarily concerned with present but at times do occupy past events and influences as they relate to menstruation conditions. 3) Experiment Experiment may be conducted in lab or in the field. The researcher can test the relative sales appeals for package, designs, price, promotional offers and replicate themes etc. , by designing suitable experiments to identify cause and effect.The first thing I would do to change is marketing strategy would be to increasethe amount of people in their marketing team. Although Shobha was probably trying to keep down costs by not hiring anyone for her marketing team she made one important mistake. One of the most important things when coming out with a new product is the marketing because until youve communicated the benefits of your product to the consumer there will not be competent demand for it. Her entry into the market was too small scale and chances are that with such an innovative product that the company will do better in the broad run with a larger scale entry.She should have asked for a larger budget and hired more people for the marketing team. She should have then put much more work into the Analysis of her target markets and perhaps expanded her scope of target markets enchantment increasing the segmentation. This would allow her to better differentiate her product. I would put in operating controls and strategic controls in order to monitor the marketing teams progress and make sure that what they are doing is consistent with the companys goals and strategy. These controls would very important for gathering the information that would form the strategies in the coming years.It would also probably help to do amarket audit at some point during the first year just to make sure that things are runningsmoothly and it shouldnt cost that much to do one at such an early stage in thecompanies development because of the smaller volume of papers to audit. 3. What slip of ad can influence consumers for this flake of product? . The low cost of posters and handbills encouraged a numberof publishers to experiment with other methods. Method were efficacious fo rinforming and reminding and reminding, they could not do the whole promotional job.Theywere utilize only to flip over each consumer personally. The merchant still used personal persuasiononce the customers were attracted to his store. The invention of hand press increased the potentialities of advertising. times, posters had made their appearance, and assumed the share of fostering demand for the product. CASE VI Impact of Retail Promotions on Consumers 1 Why would some consumers have high-involvement levels in learning about this sales promotion? A good definition of sales promotion would be as follows An action at law designed to boost the sales of a product or service.It may include an advertising campaign, increased PR activity, a free-sample campaign, offering free gifts or occupation stamps, arranging demonstrations or exhibitions, setting up competitions with attractive prizes, temporary price reducings, direct calling, telemarketing, personal letters on other methods. More than any other cistron of the promotional mix, sales promotion is about action. It is about stimulating customers to buy a product. It is not designed to be informative a quality which advertising is much better suited to. gross revenue promotion is commonly referred to as downstairs the Line promotion. sales promotion can be directed at The ultimate consumer (a imbibe strategy encouraging purchase) The distribution channel (a push strategy encouraging the take to stock the product). This is usually known as selling into the trade Some customers show high level of involvement in sales promotion is to know about the features prod uct, competitors product which re vex the identical product, price and discount offered for the product. redundant kit or benefit for the product, and to know what the new arrivals in the market are. Customers will also learn about he stores and its goodwill by such type of sales promotions. Is a level of 75 per cent comprehension realistic among those who become aware of an ad? Why or why not? Results of the study showed that ad exposure was 75 per cent and ad awareness level was 68 per cent and was considered as high. Only 43 share respondents exposed to and aware of the ad copy could accurately recall important details, such as the name of the store promoting the sell sale. Just 43 per cent correct interpretation was considered as low. Of those who could accurately interpret the ad copy, 32 per cent said they intended to respond by acquire the advertised products and 68per cent sad they had no intention to buy.This yields an overall intention to buy of 7 per cent. The large st area of lost chance was due to those who did not accurately interpret the ad copy. The post-promotion survey indicated that only 4. 2 per cent of the target market customers made purchases of the promoted products during the promotion period. In terms of how the buyers in condition(p) of the promotion, 46 per cent mentioned newspaper A (Hindi), 27 per cent newspaper B (Hindi), 8 per cent newspaper (English), and 15 per cent learned about sale through word-of mouth communication. Do you think such promotions are likely to influence the quality image of the retail store? Explain. Basically, promotion is first introduced in the 4Ps of marketing. The four Ps represents the marketing mix (Product, Price, Place Promotion) and the promotional mix is the important term used to explain the set of tools of the business. This is use to achieve benefit of its products and services from its consumer and the undermentioneds are (Advertising, Public relation, Direct Marketing, Personal sell ing and Sales promotion) On the other hand consumer behaviour is another important shot in the retail business sector.Consumers are not always averageal/simple buyer. There are many aspects twisting in buying decision process. They hold strategic shopping manner at the time of buying a product or services from a company. The main aim and objective of this research is such promotions are likey to influence the qulity immage of the retials store. Such Sales promotion has a great jounce and influence on consumer buying behaviour in the retails stores based on Tesco retail store. Such sales promotion role has a great impact on consumer buying behaviour.It has a great and strong significance role on retail industry sector. Basically sales promotions strategies used as a short-term technique tool which principal objective is to influence the ultimate buyers to try a brand or change their mind to another brand. Sales promotion represent to discount a brand, it can be straight off or indirectly, directly price reduction or indirectly through coupons premiums. scarce when the retail stores withdraw the sales promotion, then the normal price should have had a inferior value and the result of this should have had a negative impact on consumer buying behavior.The study focuses the significant attitude, detection of the consumer behaviour and it reflects the consumer loyalty on the founding of customer relationship management. Here the findings and analysis have ascertained the vital reason that impacts positively on consumer buying behaviour and in the sales volume. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 Need and Problem recognition Information Search Evaluation and Selection Decision Implementation stigmatize Purchase ProcessesConsumer Behavior2. What is the basic divagation amongst a hysteria, a fashion, a authorized, and a disregard? Provide example of each. A fashion refers to a title that is legitimate by a large group of people at a granted time suc h as thin jeans. Some styles become classics, which are styles that become pleasurable and in good perceptivity anytime and place such as the classic swarthy dress. A fad is a short lived fashion that short becomes popular and pronto disappears generally it only affects a specific group of the tribe such as low rise jeans wore by juniors.A trend is a general elbow room or course as a style begins to be certain such as the resurgence of high-waist jeans made from a light dungaree which also were feeble in the 60-70s. 11. maintain some inconsistencys between the positivist and interpretivist approaches to consumer research. For each type of examination give examples of product dimensions what would be more multipurposely explored using that type of research over the other. confident(p) assume the character of reality is objective, tangible, and single, art object the interprevisit debate that temperament of reality is favorablely constructed and multiple, this sho uld be used with products that are socially tending(p) and include fundamental interactions based on technology such as social networking. positivistic have a goal of expectancy which is good when trying to create trend reports and in the process of product development, while interpretivist goal is of understanding, this would be most useful when analyzing behavior toward products already on the market. . What is the difference between an enacted norm and a crescive norm? grade the set of crescive norms operating when a man and a muliebrity in your finishing go out for dinner party on a first date. What would they transgress? An enacted norm are explicitly clear-cut upon while crescive norms are introduce in a acculturation and are only discovered through interaction with other members of the culture.When a young man and woman go out on a first date, if they are both from the same culture then they are following crescive norms, because they are both following the norms w hich are reliable within their accustomed culture. If they are both from completely different cultures, then they would be operating on enacted norms. What they would erupt would be determined based upon what is reliable in their culture as assume damp for the occasion. 3. Read the condition physical structure religious rite Among the Nacirema and discuss what is going on.Consumer Behavior2. What is the basic difference between a fad, a fashion, a classic, and a trend? Provide example of each. A fashion refers to a style that is accepted by a large group of people at a given time such as skinny jeans. Some styles become classics, which are styles that become acceptable and in good taste anytime and place such as the classic black dress. A fad is a short lived fashion that suddenly becomes popular and quickly disappears generally it only affects a specific group of the population such as low rise jeans wore by juniors.A trend is a general direction or movement as a style beg ins to be accepted such as the revival of high-waist jeans made from a light denim which also were worn in the 60-70s. 11. State some differences between the positivist and interpretivist approaches to consumer research. For each type of inquiry give examples of product dimensions what would be more usefully explored using that type of research over the other.Positivist assume the nature of reality is objective, tangible, and single, while the interprevisit believe that nature of reality is socially constructed and multiple, this should be used with products that are socially minded and include interactions based on technology such as social networking. Positivist have a goal of prediction which is good when trying to create trend reports and in the process of product development, while interpretivist goal is of understanding, this would be most useful when analyzing behavior toward products already on the market. . What is the difference between an enacted norm and a crescive norm? Identify the set of crescive norms operating when a man and a woman in your culture go out for dinner on a first date. What would they wear? An enacted norm are explicitly decided upon while crescive norms are embedded in a culture and are only discovered through interaction with other members of the culture.When a young man and woman go out on a first date, if they are both from the same culture then they are following crescive norms, because they are both following the norms which are accepted within their given culture. If they are both from completely different cultures, then they would be operating on enacted norms. What they would wear would be determined based upon what is accepted in their culture as appropriate wear for the occasion. 3. Read the Article Body Ritual Among the Nacirema and discuss what is going on.Consumer Behavior2. What is the basic difference between a fad, a fashion, a classic, and a trend? Provide example of each. A fashion refers to a style that is ac cepted by a large group of people at a given time such as skinny jeans. Some styles become classics, which are styles that become acceptable and in good taste anytime and place such as the classic black dress. A fad is a short lived fashion that suddenly becomes popular and quickly disappears generally it only affects a specific group of the population such as low rise jeans wore by juniors.A trend is a general direction or movement as a style begins to be accepted such as the revival of high-waist jeans made from a light denim which also were worn in the 60-70s. 11. State some differences between the positivist and interpretivist approaches to consumer research. For each type of inquiry give examples of product dimensions what would be more usefully explored using that type of research over the other.Positivist assume the nature of reality is objective, tangible, and single, while the interprevisit believe that nature of reality is socially constructed and multiple, this should be used with products that are socially minded and include interactions based on technology such as social networking. Positivist have a goal of prediction which is good when trying to create trend reports and in the process of product development, while interpretivist goal is of understanding, this would be most useful when analyzing behavior toward products already on the market. . What is the difference between an enacted norm and a crescive norm? Identify the set of crescive norms operating when a man and a woman in your culture go out for dinner on a first date. What would they wear? An enacted norm are explicitly decided upon while crescive norms are embedded in a culture and are only discovered through interaction with other members of the culture.When a young man and woman go out on a first date, if they are both from the same culture then they are following crescive norms, because they are both following the norms which are accepted within their given culture. If they are both from completely different cultures, then they would be operating on enacted norms. What they would wear would be determined based upon what is accepted in their culture as appropriate wear for the occasion. 3. Read the Article Body Ritual Among the Nacirema and discuss what is going on.

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